||Migration and conquest of Canaan by the
Philistines and Israelite tribes. Map of Canaan.
||Jewish conquest of Jerusalem;
reign of David (maps); After the death of David's son, Solomon, the kingdom split into two:
Israel in the north, Judea in Jerusalem and the south (maps).
Brief History of Early Palestine in maps.
||Fall of Israel (Northern Kingdom) to Assyria.
||Fall of Judea (Southern Kingdom) to Babylon and destruction of
the first temple.
|About 539 BCE
||Fall of Babylon. Jews allowed to return to Judea.
Tradition has it that Ezra and Nehemia led this return, and later rebuilt
the walls of Jerusalem, but the walls were apparently not built until 100 years later.
|About 519 BCE
||Rebuilding of the
Second Temple under Persian rule.
||Alexander the Great conquers Persia. The land was subject to
Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
||Ptolemy of Egypt rules Jerusalem and Judea.
||Antiochus Ephiphanes rules Judea.
||Revolt of Judah Maccabee against Syrian Hellenic dynasty; Simon. 164 - Liberation
of Jerusalem. Judah is named Friend of the Roman Senate and People; Rule of the Maccabees: 166 - Judah 160 -Jonathan 143
|About 61 BCE
||Roman conquest of Jerusalem by Pompei.
Land is divided into various provinces (maps)
||Reign of Herod the Great; Herod conquered
Jerusalem in 37 BCE. Herod began an extensive restoration of the temple about 20 BC
||Probable year of birth of Jesus. Jesus was
crucified between 31 and 33 AD.
||First Jewish revolt. Fall of the Jewish Second Temple to Romans
in 70 AD. Fall of
Masada to Romans in
73 or 74.
||Second Jewish revolt under
crushed. Judea renamed
Palestina. Jews are banned from Jerusalem by Hadrianus Caesar.
||Roman Emperor Constantine
||Persians conquer Judea and Jerusalem..
||Emperor Heraclius defeats Sassanid Persians, reconquers
||Arab conquest of Jerusalem.
(slightly earlier or later according to different sources). Caliph
Omar provides the Christians of Jerusalem with the
Covenant of Umar guaranteeing their protection. Land divided into the Jund of
filastin, in the south (capital in Al-Lod and later in Ramlah), and the Jund of Urdun in the north, with capital
in Tiberias (Tabariyeh).
||Arab conquest of Egypt.
||Dome of the Rock (Omar) is completed by Caliph Abd’ al
Malik ibn Marwan who rules from Jerusalem.
Al-Aqsa Mosque is completed by the Caliph
||Caliph Suleiman builds Ramlah
||Rise of the Abbasids in Baghdad, full of the Umayyad dynasty in
Fatimid conquest. Churches and synagogues of Jerusalem
Battle of Manzikert. The Byzantine emperor Romanus IV
Diogenes is defeated by the
Seljuk Turks, opening Asia Minor to Turkish invasion.
Seljuks devastate Jerusalem.
||Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, slaughter most Jewish and Moslem
inhabitants, expel Jews.
||Salah-ed-din (Saladin) (Saladin) reconquers
||Jerusalem briefly held by Crusaders.
Mamelukes. Jerusalem taken by Muslims.
||Battle of Ayn Jalut (Nazereth) - Holagu (Mongols) defeated.
||Crusaders defeated at Acre and evicted from Palestine.
||Constantinople falls to
Ottoman Sultan Mehmed.
Ottoman Turkish conquest of Palestine.
||Muslim walls built around Jerusalem by Suleiman
||Napoleon conquers Jaffa but retreats before Acco (Acre,
Akka); Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed
in part in 1806.
||Egyptian Conquest of Palestine area by Mehmed Ali of Egypt, who
rebelled against the Ottomans. He was forced to withdraw in 1840 under pressure by European allies.
||Jerusalem families including the Abu Ghosh clan revolt against
Egyptian rule. The rebellion is eventually crushed.
||Tanzimat - reorganization program- is proclaimed in the Ottoman
||Blood libel (accusation that Jews kill Christian children to
use their blood for Passover Matzoth) against Damascus Jewry
||First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer,
||First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390
||Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) - including requirement to register
ownership of land and pay taxes on it.
||First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) outside
||First Zionist Settlement - Petah Tikwa.
||Railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem.
||First Zionist Congress convened in Basle,
||Beginnings of Zionist socialist movements.
First Congress of
in Poltava, under the leadership of Ber Borochov.
|July 3 1908
||The Young Turks revolt breaks out in the
Ottoman empire, and is eventually led by Enver Pasha; Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II is forced to restore the constitution of
1876, entailing the creation of a new parliament, and indirect representative elections. ‘Abd al-Hamid is then deposed
(27Apr 09), and his brother Mehmet V installed. Policies for the ‘Turkification’ of the Ottoman territories promulgated
through 1909, resulting in the creation of societies promoting pan-Arab ideas
||First Arabic newspaper in Haifa, al-Karmil, popularizes
opposition to selling land to Zionists.
||Foundation of Tel Aviv by Zionists (Called
Ahuzat Bayit) near Jaffa; foundation of first Kibbutz - Degania.
||Filastin, large Arabic newspaper, launched in Jaffa.
|June 15, 1914
||Anglo French agreement on Baghdad railroad and Mesopotamia.
||Start of WW I
||Allies at war with Turkey
||British protectorate in Egypt; Prince Husein Kemal becomes
|April 25, 1915
||Anglo-French landing at Gallipoli
| July 1915
Correspondence - Britain promises independence for Arabia.
|Jan 6-8 1916
||Allies evacuate Gallipoli.
|Apr 29, 1916
||British surrender to Turks at Kut, in Mesopotamia.
Agreement divides up Fertile Crescent between France & Britain into zones of influence, recognizing Arab
independence in part of the land.
| Jun 1916
||Husayn of Arabia proclaims revolt against the Turks urged on by
British promises of independence and with support of T.E. Lawrence for military operations. In October or November he
was proclaimed king of Saudi Arabia, but the British supported Saud, who had been in control of Riyadh since 1902, and
who made a pact with the British in 1915.
|Jan 1, 1917
||Britain , France and Italy recognize Husayn as king of the
|Nov 2, 1917
||British issued the
Balfour Declaration, viewed by Jews and Arabs as promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine.
||Gen. Sir Edmund Allenby captures Jerusalem from
Ottomans for the British. Col. Reginald Storrs is appointed military governor.
||Zionist commission arrives in Palestine.
||Emir Feisal and Dr.
Weizmann meet near Aqaba
||British and Arabs occupy Damascus, French
occupy Beirut and Alexandretta
association formed in Jaffa to oppose the creation of a Jewish homeland. Another was formed in Jerusalem soon after.
Armistice between Allies and Germany, Nov 11.
||First Palestinian Congress advocated
incorporation of Palestine into greater Syria.
|Jan 18, 1919
||Paris Peace Conference opens - results in Treaty of Versailles,
June 28, 1919.
||Widespread national revolt begins
in Egypt against British rule after nationalist leaders were arrested and Zaghloul Pasha was exiled. The Wafd party is
|May 19 1919
Mustafa Kemal Ataturklands at Samsun in
Turkey and begins organizing nationalist forces to oppose the sultanate & the Allied occupation
|May 23 1919
||Kurdish revolt against the British, led by
Shaykh Mahmud Berzendji of Sulaymaniyya, who proclaims an independent Kurdistan. The revolt continued until 1931.
||General Syrian Congress (which included
prominent Palestinians, Transjordanians, Lebanese & Syrians) held in Damascus, supporting the independence of an
undivided Syria, and opposed to Zionism. Britain cedes authority over Syria to France after the congress finishes; Gen.
Henri Gourand becomes High Commissioner.
|July 19 1919
||In Turkey, Ataturk creates a provisional
government based in Ankara.
|28 Aug 1919
||Henry King and Charles Crane, the US members of
the International Commission of Inquiry, sent primarily on the initiative of President
Wilson, present their report based on their visit to the region in June-July, against creation of a Jewish National home
|Feb - Mar 1920
||Jewish settlements of Tel Hai and Metullah in N. Palestine attacked (Feb
20). Josef Trumpeldor killed in second attack at Tel Hai (March 1)
||Faysal elected and crowned king of Greater
Syria at 2nd General Syrian Congress in Damascus; assembly proclaims independence from France of Greater Syria; rejects
Balfour Declaration and Sykes-Picot agreement. Allies occupy Constantinople.
||Musa Kazim al-Husayni, mayor of Jerusalem, is
replaced by Raghib al-Nashashibi; clan rivalry grows.
||"Nebi Musa" Arab riots led by Haj Amin El Husseini and Aref El
Aref in Hebron and Jerusalem. Forty Six Jews Killed.
|Apr 25, 1920
||San Remo Conference - Supreme Allied Council assigns mandates
for Mesopotamia and Palestine to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France.
Haganah,Jewish Self Defense,
Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky, Eliahu Golumb and others.
||Herbert Samuel named High Commissioner of
Palestine. King Faisal recognizes French Mandate. French forces under Gourand retake Damascus by force with British
support. Britain arrests Palestinian notables who had supported Faysal.
|Histadrut, the General Federation of Hebrew
Workers in the Land of Israel (Histadrut Haklalit Shel Haovdim Haivriyim Be'eretz Yisrael), was formed. Remained
exclusively Jewish until 1960s, when it officially dropped ‘Hebrew’ from its name (1966).
||Arab riots in Jaffa against Jewish population.
|May 10, 1921
Al Husseini appointed Grand Mufti by
British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel, though Husseini had been convicted of organizing riots in 1920 and had been
sentenced to ten years in jail.
||Haj Amin El Husseini appointed President of the Supreme Muslim
||British grant independence to Egypt.
|June 3, 1922
||The Churchill ("Command")
White Paper notes that the Balfour declaration only promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and reserves East
Palestine for Transjordan.
|July 24, 1922
||British Mandate for
Palestine; Official establishment of Transjordan as a separate state; Britain, in military control of Syria, allows
French forces led by Gourand to retake Damascus by force.
|Nov 1, 1922
||Mustapha Kemal proclaims Turkish Republic
|May 25, 1923
||Proclamation of Transjordanian Independence under Emir Abdullah
|May 29, 1923
||Palestine constitution suspended by British after Arabs refuse
to participate in the government.
|July 24, 1923
||Lausanne Peace Treaty signed by Greece, Turkey and the Allies.
|Sept 29, 1923
||Palestine Mandate officially comes into force.
|Feb 19, 1924
||Shah Ahmed deposed in Persia; Reza Khan Appointed Regent
|Nov 20, 1924
||Egyptian troops withdrawn from Sudan under British ultimatum,
after the assassination of Sir Lee Stack.
||Official inauguration of the Hebrew University
|July 20, 1925
||Druze uprising in Syria, continues until June, 1927.
|Oct 12, 1925
||Syrian uprising against the French Mandate.
|Jan 8, 1926
||Ibn Saud becomes king of the Hejaz, now called Saudi Arabia.
|May 23, 1926
||France proclaims Republic of Lebanon.
|May 20, 1927
||Britain recognizes Saudi independence.
|Dec. 14, 1927
||Britain recognizes Iraqi independence (subject to treaty
provisions) and continuing mandate.
|Feb. 20, 1928
||Britain recognizes Transjordanian independence
(subject to treaty provisions).
|July 5, 1928
||Sir John Chancellor becomes High Commissioner in Palestine.
|July 19, 1928
||King Fuad dissolves Egyptian parliament, suspends freedom of the
Arab Riots and Massacres in
Hebron,Jerusalem, Safed, Haifa, Motza and
elsewhere. The Jews had set up a dividing screen at the Wailing Wall in Yom Kippur of 1928 to separate men and women
worshippers, prompting rumors that the Jews wanted to build a synagogue at wall, which were spread deliberately by Hajj
Amin al-Husseini. Amid heightening tensions, a demonstration by Jews in 1929 and Arab incitement ignited violence and
rioting again Jews. Thousands of Jews fled the ancient Jewish quarter in Jerusalem. The Hebron Jewish community was
evacuated after 64-67 were killed in riots.
|Oct. 21, 1929
||Egyptian Constitution restored.
Hope-Simpson Report recommends cessation of Jewish immigration.
|Oct 21, 1930
Paper proposes to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine.
||After questions in commons and League condemnation,
Ramsay MacDonald writes to Haim Weizmann Rescinding the Passfield White Paper; IZL (Irgun
or Etzel - The Irgun
Tzvai Leumi) leave the Haganah, rejoin in 1936 and split again.
|Oct. 3, 1932
||British Mandate over Iraq terminated.
||Massacre of Assyrian Christians in Iraq.
|Sept. 8, 1933
||King Feisal of Iraq dies, succeeded by his son Ghazi.
||War between Saudi Arabia an Yemen.
|Nov. 2, 1934
||Syrian Parliament suspended indefinitely.
|Nov. 30, 1934
||Egyptian Constitution of 1930 suspended.
||Iraq-Mediterranean oil pipeline opened.
||Farouk succeeds Fuad I as King of Egypt; Arab Higher Committee
formed in Palestine.
Arab Revolt led or coopted by the Al-Husseini
family and Fawzi al-Kaukji and financed by Axis powers. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources; most
were killed by other Arabs and by British.Orde Wingate
forms "night squads" for Jewish self-defense. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to
|Aug. 26, 1936
||Anglo-Egyptian treaty ends military occupation of Egypt except
in the Suez Canal zone.
|Oct, 29, 1936
||General Sidqi Bakr seizes power in Iraq.
||Peel and Woodhead
commissions recommend partitioning Palestine into a small Jewish state and a large Arab one.
|Aug. 11, 1937
||Assassination of General Sidqi Bakr, Iraqi dictator.
|Oct. 1, 1937
||British declare Higher Committee in Palestine an illegal body.
|Oct. 16, 1937
||Following assassination of British District Officer
for Northern Palestine, Hajj Amin El-Husseini Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria and
thence to Iraq.
||Round-table conference on Palestine in London, with Arab
countries, Zionists and Palestinian representatives.
|May 17, 1939
||1939 White Paper limits
Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 in total, restricts Jewish land purchases, envisions an Arab Palestinian
state. Jews found the Mossad to arrange for illegal immigration.
|Sept. 3, 1939
||Britain and France declare war on Germany
|Nov 25, 1940
||The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Patria
called Patra) carrying refugees from Europe, detained in Haifa by the British, is blown up by the Jewish underground
Hagana to prevent transshipment of the refugees to Mauritius. The explosion was supposed to cause a small leak. Instead,
the ship sank and 252 people died.
|Apr. 1, 1941
||Agitation by exiled Palestinian Mufti
Hajj Amin al Husseini leads to coup. Pro-Axis Government under Rashid Ali in Iraq.
|May -June, 1941
||British reoccupy Habbanieh and Baghdad, Rashid Ali and pro-Axis leaders flee
to Teheran and Berlin; After the revolt is suppressed, a pogrom against the Jews (Farhoud) takes place in Baghdad, while
British troops stand by and refuse to intervene. (Click for details of Iraq Axis coup, Mufti, British Intervention and
||Free French and Australians occupy Syria and Lebanon; Britain
and France guarantee Syrian independence.
||British force the appointment of Nahas Pasha, a British ally,
as Egyptian PM.
|Feb. 24, 1942
||The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Struma, forced to sail north
from Turkey, is torpedoed by a Soviet submarine (either collaborating with British or because the ship was mistaken for
German shipping) and sunk with the loss of
428 men, 269 women and 70
||Battle of El Alamein. British under General Montgomery defeat
Rommel's Afrika Korps and end the Nazi threat on Egypt.
|May 9, 1942
- Zionist leaders, headed by
Ben-Gurion, convene at the Biltmore Hotel in New York and set
their postwar program (known as the Biltmore Program). The program recommended an end to the British Mandate and
demand Jewish control over immigration to Palestine with the aim of founding a Jewish "Commonwealth."
|Oct 7, 1944
||Arab leaders meet in
Alexandria to discuss postwar plans for independence and ways to prevent implementation of Jewish control over
|Nov 6, 1944
||Members of the Jewish
Eliyahu Hakim and
Eliyahu Bet Zuri assassinated Lord
Moyne in Cairo. Moyne, a known anti-Zionist, was Minister of State for the Middle East and in charge of
carrying out the terms of the 1939 White paper - preventing Jewish immigration to Palestine by force.
||All Arab states declare war on Germany and Japan.
|March 22, 1945
||League of Arab States set up (Egypt,
Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, with Musa ‘Alami as Arab States’ chosen representative of the
Palestinians) with British approval to shift welfare responsibility onto local population and to ensure continuing Arab
support. The goals of the league were as stated in the Alexandria Protocol, of which it was
Arab League charter proclaims goal of achieving closer aims between Arab States and declares that Palestine
is a member of the League in a special annex.
||Crisis in Syria and Lebanon. British ultimatum to French causes
French to withdraw their forces.
||US President Truman asks British to admit 110,000 Jewish
refugees to Palestine.
||British limit Jewish immigration into Palestine to 1,500 a
American Committee of Inquiry for Palestine appointed.
||British-Tranjordanian treaty; British recognize Emir Abdullah
as King of Transjordan.
||Report of Anglo
American Committee of Inquiry published. Recommend admission of 100,000 Jews to Palestine.
||Haj Amin El Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, escapes from
detention in France aided by French collaborators. Husseini was to have been deported to Germany and tried for war
crimes after spending the war working for the Nazis in Germany.
|July 22, 1946
||Irgun Jewish underground blows up British HQ in King David
Hotel, Jerusalem, killing 91 persons.
||British start deporting illegal Jewish immigrants to detention camps in
||Palestine round-table conference opens in London.
||Nokrashy Pasha, new Egyptian PM, repudiates Anglo-Egyptian
||Britain refers Palestine issue to the UN.
||UN General Assembly appoints UN Special Committee on Palestine
|July 18, 1947
||British rammed the Jewish illegal immigrant
Exodus (formerly "President Warfield") on the high seas. They towed it to Haifa where it was the subject of
extensive publicity, generating public sympathy for the Zionist cause. The passengers were eventually disembarked in
Hamburg. The incident set world and particularly US opinion against the British, and caused the British to intern
illegal immigrants thereafter in Cyprus, rather than attempting to return them to Europe.
|Sept 1, 1947
UNSCOP Report issued, calls for partition of Palestine.
|Nov. 29, 1947
||UN Partition Resolution (GA
181) - Palestine was to be divided into a Jewish State and an Arab State; Jerusalem was to be internationalized. The
resolution is supported by both the US and USSR. Arab countries and Arab league refuse to recognize the resolution.
|Dec. 1, 1947
||Arab riots in Jerusalem. Beginning of Arab
blockade of Jerusalem. The period to May 1948 was characterized by numerous skirmishes, road ambushes, riots, bombings
and massacres, whether organized by one of the other sides or spontaneous. The Haifa riots and
massacres were typical. In December, the Irgun began the first of its bombings in Arab Jerusalem.
Beginning of the first phase of the
Israel War of Independence (First
||Arab Salvation Army (also called Arab
Liberation Army - ALA) are admitted to Palestine by the British, following a promise not to attack Jewish
settlements. Their leader, Fauzi Al-Kaukji may have entered Palestine only in March. Jewish Agency concludes arms deal
with Czechoslovakia, but most arms do not arrive until June 1948, after the British have left. The UN, including the US,
had placed an arms embargo on Palestine. This did not apply to Arab countries including Transjordan. As independent
states, they were allowed to acquire arms. The Jordan Legion received a steady supply of arms from Britain through the
Suez Canal, at least until May 1948, including a large number of 25 pounder cannon at the beginning of 1948.
Hagannah agents purchased 20 Auster light aircraft in Britain, sold for scrap, rebuilt them and brought them to Palestine
for use of the Haganah. Haganah later rebuilt Spitfires left by the mandate for scrap as well, but did not have real
fighter and bomber aircraft until May 1948 when Czech Avia S-199 (version of the Messerschmitt 210) (and later
other aircraft including B-17s) purchased clandestinely were brought
into the country. Irgun bombed the Jaffa city hall January 4. It had been used as a center for organizing attacks on Tel
|January 16, 1948
||Jewish convoy to
Gush Etzion intercepted, fighters killed, and bodies mutilated.
||Anti-British riots in Baghdad against new
British-Iraq treaty bring down pro-British government.
||Provisional Jewish government formed in
Tel-Aviv. Convoy to Gush Etzion ambushed in Nebi Daniel.
Arabs begin to flee Haifa.
|April 6-8, 1948
||Arab blockade of Jerusalem is broken temporarily by Operation Nachshon. Death of Abd-El-Qader Al-Husseini at Kastel - The foremost Palestinian military leader is shot by a
Jewish sentry when he wanders into Jewish held Kastel in the Jerusalem corridor thinking it is in Arab hands.
|April 9, 1948
Massacre - Jewish dissident underground groups - Irgun and Lehi kill over 100 Palestinian civilians in the Jerusalem
village of Deir Yassin.
|April 13, 1948
Hadassah Convoy Massacre - In retaliation for Deir Yassin, Arabs killed Jewish medical personnel and sick persons on their way to Hadassah hospital.
|April 13-20, 1948
||Operation Har'el launched by Haganah at conclusion of
Operation Nachshon, does not succeed in opening the road to Jerusalem.
||Arab flight from Haifa continues; Arab flight from Jaffa.
|April 22-31 1948
||Operation Misparayim launched by Hagannah to assume control of
Haifa after British withdrawal and attacks by Arab forces and Irgun.
|May 12, 1948
||Haganah captures Tsfat (Safed). Arab population flees the city
before it is captured.
|May 13, 1948
||Jaffa surrenders to Haganah.
|May 13, 1948
|| Kfar Etzion Massacre
- In retaliation for Deir Yassin Massacre, Arabs killed about 128 Jewish defenders at Kfar Etzion, after they had
|May 14, 1948
||Remaining kibbutzim of Gush Etzion surrender.
British High Commissioner Cunningham leaves Palestine. State of Israel declared on Friday May 14, in advance of the
Sabbath. recognized immediately by USA and on May 17 by USSR.
|May 15, 1948
||British leave Palestine.
Israel War of Independence (First
Arab-Israeli War).(1948 War),
phase II. Egypt, Syria, Iraq,
Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion begins. Egyptian attacks
repulsed at Kfar Darom and Nirim.
1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 Arab-Israeli
war) Timeline (Chronology) and
Israel War of Independence
|May 17, 1948
||Haganah captures Acco (Acre). Most of the Arab population flees
the city before it is captured.
|May 18, 1948
||Syrian army captures Massada and Merom Hagolan.
|May 19-24, 1948
||Battle of Yad Mordechai
- Kibbutz falls after five days of fighting superior Egyptian regular army forces.
|May 28, 1948
||Jewish quarter of the old city of Jerusalem falls to the Jordan
Legion. The inhabitants were protected from the wrath of a lynch mob by the Legion under Abdullah Tell, and
noncombatants were expelled to West Jerusalem. About 300 Haganah defenders were taken prisoner and sent to Jordan. The
entire quarter including 58 of the 59 synagogues was demolished by the Arab mob despite efforts of the Legion.
|June 11, 1948
||First truce begins, lasting until 8 July.
|June 23, 1948
Altalena ship brings weapons and 940
immigrants to Palestine. The arms shipment was a violation of UN embargo, but Israel government agreed to it, provided
the Irgun handed over the weapons to IDF and formed a unified force. Irgun Commander
Menachem Begin refused to hand over
weapons and Irgun insisted on keeping a portion of the arms for its own use as a separate force. Palmach units of IDF
under Yigal Allon attempted to capture weapons by force, killing 14 Irgun men.
Yitzhak Rabin, in command of shore
batteries in Tel-Aviv, was ordered to fire upon and sink the Altalena after it attempted a landing there. According to
some reports, factions of the Irgun (Etzel) were planning a coup with the arms.
|June, 28, 1948
||Count Folke Bernadotte's first peace plan - Jerusalem to be
Arab. (First Plan of Count Bernadotte for settling
the Arab-Israel war of 1948)
|July 08, 1948
||Egyptian army breaks truce, due to end July 9.
Attacks from neighborhood of Majdal (Ashdod). Israeli counterattack at Faluja was unsuccessful. This phase of the war is
known as "the ten days," and included Operation (Mivtza) Dani - the Israeli conquest of Lydda (Lod) and Ramla, breaking the Arab
siege of Jerusalem, and creating thousands of refugees, as well as advances in the north. During this time Israel had
acquired three B-17s and some Dakotas. One of the B-17s succeeded in dropping some bombs on Cairo on its way to delivery
in Israel, others bombed Damascus and Rafah. The bombing of Cairo put an end to Egyptian air-raids on Tel Aviv.
| July 10, 1948
||Arab League announced the establishment of a
temporary Palestinian civilian administration over Arab held-areas of Palestine, but it was never implemented.
|July 12, 1948
||Egyptians attack Kibbutz Negba with armor and
massive troop concentrations. Israelis suffer 5 dead, 16 wounded, Egyptian casualties 200- 300 dead and wounded.
|July 19, 1948
||Second truce in Israel-Arab war.
|Sept 17, 1948
||Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte, a UN mediator,
was assassinated in Jerusalem, and Lehi members were suspected. The Israel government outlawed the organization's branch
in Jerusalem and shut down its publication, Hamivrak. The leaders of Lehi, Natan Yellin-Mor and Mattityahu Shmuelevitz,
were sentenced to long jail terms by a military court, but were released in a general amnesty. Bernadotte, who had been
instrumental in saving about 21,000 Jews in WW II, was proposing to "relieve" Israel of the Negev and force return of
the Palestinian refugees. The latter proposal was adopted in UN General Assembly Resolution 194. ( see
Bernadotte Plan with map
Second plan of Count
Bernadotte for settlement of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 )
|Sept 22, 1948
||Palestinian States - AHC communiqué announces
the establishment of the Government of All Palestine (APG; Hukumat 'Umum Filastin); Declaration of Independence
proclaimed by Hajj Amin to Palestine National Council in Gaza (30Sept-1Oct) on 1Oct, with Hajj Amin as President of the
PNC, Ahmad Hilmi ‘Abd al-Baqi as PM, Jamal al-Husayni as Foreign Minister, in the Mandate territory of Palestine, with
the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt. Jerusalem as capital, Gaza as seat of government. Recognized and sponsored by Egypt
and Arab League, who sought to forestall ‘Abdullah’s plan to annex West Bank; strongly opposed by Jordan, who organized
a much larger rival Palestinian Congress in Amman on 30Sept to support Jordan’s policy in Palestine. APG issued
Palestinian passports; but with Egyptian disillusionment, HQ transferred to Cairo in Oct, Hajj Amin was confined to
Cairo and his actions curtailed; many leading members left to work for Amman. Ahmad Hilmi continued to represent
Palestine in the League until his death in September 63.
|Oct. 15, 1948
||Second truce ends; Israeli offensive breaks
Egyptian siege of Israeli settlements in the Negev (Operation
Yoav ). Beersheva is taken. In the north,
defeats the Arab Liberation army (Oct. 31).
|Dec. 11, 1948
||UN Resolution 194 called
for cessation of hostilities, return of refugees who wish to live in peace. The resolution reflected UN and US anger
over the assassination of
||Israelis advance into Egypt; Nokrashy Pasha,
Egyptian PM, assassinated.
|Dec 19, 1948- Jan 7, 49
Operation Horev conquers Gaza and
enters Sinai. Intervention by British and US forces Israel to withdraw. Israel shot down several British reconnaissance
planes, apparently unarmed (four Spitfires and one Tempest) January 7, 1949.
|March 7-10, 1949
Uvda- IDF captures southern Negev including Eilat
with no resistance. This marks the end of actual hostilities.
||Israel and Arab states agree to armistice in
separate agreements. Israel-EgyptIsrael
Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan. The war created
about 780,000 Palestinian refugees who fled or were evicted from Jewish held areas. Gaza fell under the jurisdiction of
Egypt. The West Bank of the Jordan was occupied by Jordan and later annexed, consistent with secret agreements with the
Jewish leadership made before the outbreak of hostilities.
|April 27 – Sept 1949
||Lausanne conference - Abortive Israel Arab Truce Negotiations.
Minor achievements - working recognition of Israel by Arab States who attended the conference, and acceptance of UN
Resolutions by both sides. However no substantive agreements were reached.
|July 20, 1949
||King Farouk of Egypt and PM Za'im of Syria agree on a common
front against Iraq.
||Syrian coup d'etat - PM Za'im executed; Colonel Hinnawi in
||Syrian coup d'etat - Colonel Hinnawi executed; Colonel
Shishakly in power.
||Wafd party win Egyptian elections; Nahas Pasha PM
||De Jure British recognition to Israel and Greater Jordan
(including West Bank).
||Tripartite Declaration of USA, Britain and France - Middle East
security and stability are a common interest.
|May 2, 1951
||Mossadegh, PM of Iran, nationalizes oil industry.
||Assassination of Jordan's King Abdulla because
of rumored plans for peace with Israel. His grandson Hussein was crowned in his place following the brief reign of
|July 23, 1952
||The Free Officers (al-dubbat al-ahrar)
movement in Egypt - aware of royal plans to remove dissidents from the army - launch a near-bloodless military coup
(only 2 fatalities). Officers were nominally led by Gen. Muhammad Najib (who was not involved in the coup's planning),
though they were organized by his deputy
Gamal Abdel Nasser. King Faruq
was forced to abdicate on July 26 and is exiled. A new
governing authority, the Revolutionary Command Council, is established on July
27, and chaired by Nasser with 8 other
members (11 from early 1953). Initially, a civilian administration is set up under ‘Ali Mahir, but he opposed RCC plans
for land redistribution (Sept 52), with compulsory purchase by the state, and so was dismissed and replaced with direct
RCC control. Constitution is suspended (Dec 52), Parliament disbanded, parties banned (Jan 53, for a projected three
year period of military rule), monarchy formally abolished, a republic declared & Najib is installed as President, with
Nasser as deputy PM (June 1953) Land reform ensures that the power of large landowners and royal family was
broken. Press brought under State control, esp. influential Al-Ahram (later nationalized in 1960). At Nasser’s urging,
the nationalism of Egypt's previous government - especially its opposition to Israel and Sudan - is toned down; and
Najib indicates that Egypt would participate in US/UK regional defense arrangements (10 Nov), coupled with a request for
economic & military aid.
|Aug 11, 1952
||King Talal of Jordan abdicates in favor of Hussein, aged 17.
|Sept 7, 1952
||Najib becomes PM of Egypt.
|Jan 16, 1953
||Plot against Najib in Egypt; Rashid Mehanna arrested, political
parties dissolved; Najib proclaims 3 year transition period without elections,
|Jam. 18, 1953
||Beginning of anti-Zionist stance in USSR. Moscow accuses
"Zionist agents" of murdering Zhdanov and attempting to murder other Soviet leaders.
|June 18, 1953
||Egypt proclaimed a Republic with Najib as President.
|July 12, 1953
||Shishakly becomes President of Syria.
|Sept. 7, 1954
||Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, succeeded by Moshe Sharett.
||IDF paratrooper unit 101 under Ariel
Sharon killed 69 civilians and destroyed a great deal of property in a raid on the Jordanian village of Qibieh. The
raid was a reprisal for a raid on Tirat Yehuda.
|Feb. 25, 1954
||Nasser deposes Najib in Egypt and assumes chairmanship of
junta. Najib regains authority 2 days later.
|Feb. 27, 1954
||Shishakly flees from Syria following army revolt.
|April 18, 1954
||Nasser ousts Najib and becomes PM of Egypt.
||The Lavon Affair: Israeli
government spies, seemingly without PM Sharett’s knowledge, attempt to sabotage British & US property in Egypt to put
blame on Egyptian terrorists, thus driving a wedge between Britain and Egypt, and postponing British evacuation of the
Suez. The plan’s failure leads to the fragmentation of Mapai’s leadership, with recurring crises of mutual recrimination
over the next decade. Ben Gurion insisted on a full investigation of the affair but was rebuffed by Lavon partisans.
Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon resigns in Feb 1955. Egypt retaliated against Egyptian Jews, some of whom were
involved in the plot.
|Oct 19, 1954
||Anglo-Egyptian evacuation agreement signed (troops guarding
canal to leave).
|Nov 15, 1954
||Najib dismissed as President of Egypt, after
Revolutionary Command Council - alienated by his public prominence - had attempted unsuccessfully to engineer his
resignation (Feb), had orchestrated pro-RCC demonstrations (25-29Mar) & had installed his main opponent, Nasser, as PM
in Apr. Najib is placed under house arrest, Nasser takes over as President.
|Jan. 27, 1955
||Military court in Cairo sentences 2 members of Israeli spy ring to death
They are executed Jan 27.
||Pinhas Lavon resigns as Israel defense minister and is replaced by David
||Continuous incidents between Egypt and
Israel/Syria, primarily in Gaza DMZ. Operation Black Arrow (Hetz Shahor) launched by Israel in Feb 1955, following
Egyptian incursions, killed 38 Egyptians, resulted in a major embarrassment for Egypt and caused Nasser to rethink his
strategy with Israel.
|Feb. 24, 1955
||Baghdad Pact - Pact of Mutual Cooperation Between
the Kingdom of Iraq, the Republic of Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Pakistan, and the Kingdom of Iran
(Baghdad Pact). British/US attempt to minimize Soviet incursions and protect friendly regimes. Israel feels isolated and
lacking Western protection.
|Sept 27, 1955
||Egyptian-Czech arms deal. Actually, the arms came from the
USSR. The "Czech" source was devised by Nasser as a cover up, so as not to alarm the Americans and British. A secret clause required Egypt to get
financing of the Aswan dam from the USSR.
|Nov. 2, 1955
Sharett as Israeli PM.
|Dec 11, 1955
||Israel launched an attack on Syria following
firing on a police patrol boat possibly sent as a deliberate provocation. (operation Olive Leaves), condemned in
SCR111, 19 Jan 56,
|April 5 1956
||Increased tension between Israel & Egypt-Syria.
IDF claimed 180 attacks on Israel from Gaza in past four months. Three Israelis killed April 4 when Egyptians opened
fire on an Israeli patrol. Israel responded, and an artillery duel culminated in an Israeli artillery barrage
aimed at the center
of Gaza City (April 4-5) that killed 59, wounds about 100, mostly civilians. Egypt responded with increased commando raids,
sending hundreds of fedayeen across the border in separate raids and killing 12 Israelis. Temporarily calmed through
offices of UNS-G.
||Sharett resigns as Israeli FM ( dies.1965);
Golda Meir takes
FM post.; Last British troops leave Suez Canal base on June 13.
|July 26, 1956
||The US withdraws funding from the Aswan dam,
USSR steps in. In response, Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal Company (26 Jul), to opposition of British (lease due to
terminate in 1968). Is unanimously supported in this by the Arab League (Aug), though Iraqi leaders secretly call on the
British to topple Nasser; imposition of martial law in Iraq. Britain, France and USA announce financial retaliation.
|Aug. 16, 1956
||London Conference on Suez Canal boycotted by Egypt.
|Sept 10, 1956
||Egypt rejects 18 nation proposals for Suez Canal.
|Sept 19, 1956
||Second London conference on Suez.
|Sept. 23, 1956
||Britain and France refer Suez dispute to UN Security Council.
|Oct. 29, 1956
Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border
raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of
newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French
and British collaboration. French and British were interested in reversing the nationalization of the canal. Israel
withdraws after a UN peace keeping force is placed in Sinai, and US guarantees right of passage for Israeli shipping
through the Straits of Tiran. Suez Canal reopned March 23, 1957.
(informally) with the aim of destroying Israel. Formal establishment about 1964.
||Construction of Israel nuclear breeder reactor
using French technology begins in Dimona some time in the latter part of the 1950s. The French later tried to stop the
program, but backed down when Israeli FM Peres said Israel would make the deal public.
|Feb 1, 1958
||Egypt and Syria announce merger into United
Arab Republic, on Syrian communist initiative in an attempt to outbid Ba‘thist call for a federal union, taken up by
Syrian Ba'ath FM Salah al-Din Bitar, a Syrian military delegation had flown to Egypt for unity talks (11Jan).
Nasser, unexpectedly agrees to immediate unity. Approved by legislatures on 5Feb, and parallel plebiscites on 21 Feb
(which also approve Nasser as President). Armies placed under Egypt command; Syrian political parties dissolved (Mar);
Syrian "province" is headed by the left Ba‘thists under Akram Hurani. Large land redistribution schemes in both Syria &
Iraq, on model of Egypt 1952. Egypt receives its first economic loan from USSR (($126 million) to promote national
|July 14, 1958
||Revolution in Iraq ousts and murders British clients, King
Feisal II and PM Nuri As-Said. Kassim becomes takes power.
|July 15, 1958
||US Marines land in Lebanon at the request of President Chamoun.
|July 17, 1958
||British paratroops land in Jordan to support Jordanian gov't
following Iraqi coup.
|Oct. 23, 1958
||Soviet loan to Egypt to finance Aswan Dam.
|Nov 18, 1959
||Israel abandons earlier Jordan river diversion scheme, begins
work on the National Water Carrier Project, to divert the waters of the River Jordan from the Sea of Galilee to
the Negev, taking its share of Jordan water in accordance with Johnston plan.
Arafat Khalil al Wazir and others found the Palestine
Liberation Committee, soon renamed "Fatah" (Conquest). The organization was to be modeled on the Algerian FLN.
Agents capture Nazi war criminal Adolf
Eichmann in Argentina and abduct him to Israel. Eichmann had order the deaths of millions of Jews as well as Romany
people and other minorities.
||Eichmann trial is televised and seen around the
world. Eichmann was executed in June, 1962.
|June 25, 1961
||With Soviet support, Kassim declares Kuwait is part of Iraq.
|Sept. 29, 1961
||Syria secedes from union with Egypt.
|Sept 27, 1962
||Army coup in Yemen, Abdulla al-Sallal proclaimed PM. Nasser
announces support for revolution Sept. 29.
|Nov. 5, 1962
||Saudi Arabia severs relations with Egypt.
|Feb 8, 1963
||Baathist coup against Kassim in Iraq; Kassim executed on
television and approximately 10,000 alleged communist supporters killed.
|March 8, 1963
||Baathist coup against President Qudsi in Syria.
|March 14, 1963
||Egypt, Syria and Iraq open abortive unity talks in Cairo.
|24 June, 1963
||Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, because of his frustration at
being unable to get justice in the Lavon Affair.
|Nov. 18, 1963
||Abdul-Salem Aref takes power in Iraq, expels Baathist
government members and breaks military union with Syria.
| Jan 13-17 1964
||First Arab summit at Cairo (the Egyptians count this as the
third Arab Summit) (ie. heads of State, instigated by Nasser), prompted by Israel’s R .Jordan diversion scheme and
Palestinian agitation against it. Arabs declare their intentions of stopping the Israeli diversion scheme, which
is in accordance with the Johnson plan, and decided on establishment of the PLO. A Unified Arab Command under Egyptian
supervision was created. This summit and the one that followed in September caused considerable alarm in Israel, and is
cited by Avi Shlaim (The Iron Wall) as the actual beginning of the
(Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian
National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel. PLO was founded by Egypt to divert Palestinian
energies from the nascent Fatah movement of Yasser Arafat, which had become anti-Nasserist.
|Sept 13, 1964
||Second Arab Summit at
Alexandria decides on diversion of the headwaters of the Jordan as well as
strengthening regional Arab armies. Arabs declare the aim of destroying Israel.
addressed two notes to the UN Security Council, concerning the alarming nature of the summit resolutions to destroy
|Sept. 18. 1965
||Third Arab Summit at Casablanca. Conference draws up staged
plan for combating Israel, first building up armed forces of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon over 2.5-3 yrs & refraining from
war with Israel; then proceeding to war.
|April 13, 1965
||Iraq President Aref killed in helicopter crash - possibly
sabotage, and is succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Aref.
|Nov 13, 1966
||Samu' raid: Israeli troops kill 15
Jordanian soldiers and 3 civilians, & dynamite 125 houses, in
an attack on the frontier village of Samu‘ near Hebron; in response to the death of 3 Israeli soldiers by a road
mine. Israel is censured by
SCR228 (25 Nov 66), but no military response from Amman. This leads to recriminations in the Israeli government,
which had intended a smaller scale raid, and Palestinian anger & clashes with Jordanian security forces throughout
West Bank, especially in Nablus where the army had to intervene. The PLO gains support.
Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
|May 27, 1967
||Nasser cancels a planned Egyptian attack on Israel, after it
became obvious that the Israelis knew about the plan.
|May 30, 1967
||Jordan signs a defense pact with Egypt, allows Egyptian command
of Jordan Legion.
|Jun 2, 1967
Dayan joins Israeli cabinet as Minister of Defense. Unity
Six day war. Following a long period of tension,
Israel attacks - destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the
West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 (November 1967) called for
Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace.
1967 Six Day War Timeline (chronology)
||Khartoum Conference - Arab summit
says no to peace or negotiations with Israel.
|Sept. 4, 1967
||50 Egyptian officers arrested, including Commander in Chief
Amer, on charges of plotting against Nasser. Amer later reported to have committed suicide
|Nov 22, 1967
||UN Security Council
resolution 242 (November 1967) called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace
|Oct 21, 1967
||Egyptian missile ship sinks the Israeli destroyer Eilath.
Israel retaliates by heavy artillery bombardment of Suez refinery complex.
|Nov 5., 1967
||Pres. Sallal of Yemen Overthrown.
|Nov. 30, 1967
||People's Republic of Southern Yemen formed; last British troops
|Jan 16, 1968
||Britain announces intention to withdraw from Persian Gulf by
|March 21, 1968
||Battle of Karameh - Jordanian and Palestinian forces inflicted
a partial defeat on Israel troops staging a massive retaliatory raid on a Jordanian town that had served as a staging
area for guerilla attacks and a base for PLO/Fatah guerillas.. The Fatah declared a great victory and retreated into the
hills. The anniversary of Karameh is still celebrated as a victory by Palestinians.
||Escalation along the Suez Canal.
Egyptians violated the cease fire repeatedly along the Suez canal. Nasser
stated as strategy that Egypt can suffer numerous casualties because of manpower reserves, while Israel cannot.
|20-30 Jul, 1968
||Baathist Gen Ahmed al-Bakr overthrows Aref Regime in Iraq. Rise
of Saddam Hussein.
|21-30 Nov, 1968
||Student riots in Egypt;
||PFLP attack on El Al plane in Athens. One Israeli
killed; Israel responds on Dec 28 with helicopter raid on Beirut International Airport. Commandos destroy 13 Arab
planes and damage airport.
SCR262 of 31Dec unanimously censures Israel,
|Jan 6, 1969
||French ban on arms supplies made public by Israel
|Jan 27, 1969
||Iraqis hang 14 (9 Jews) as Israeli spies.
|Feb 1-4, 1969
||Fifth Palestine National Council (PNC) in Cairo. Fatah gains
formal control with Yasser Arafat declared chair of Executive Committee. PNC
statement sets goal of a "secular democratic state" society for Muslims, Christians & Jews.
|Feb 18, 1969
||PFLP attack El Al plane in Zurich; strong international
|Feb 20, 1969
||PFLP bomb attacks on a Jerusalem supermarket
|Feb 24, 1969
||Israeli airstrike against 2 al-Fatah camps near
Damascus; large no of casualties. Fatah moves to strengthen its position in Jordan; PFLP becomes more explicit in its
call for the overthrow of King Hussein, seen as a Western puppet.
||Internal struggles in Syrian Ba‘th party: Hafez
al-Assad, defense minister, takes full control over military in Syria; civilian institutions left under the control of
President Atasi. Former stressed pan-Arab cooperation, especially with Egypt; latter rejected cooperation with the
conservative regimes, & controlled the Sa‘iqa fida’i organization.
|Mar 11 1969
||Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister in Israel after death of Levi
|Aug 29, 1969
||Group commanded by Layla Khalid hijacks TWA plane flying to Tel
||Hostilities along the Suez canal. between
Israel and Egypt escalate as Soviets supply SAM-2 radar and pilots, US supplies Israel with Phantom jets and Hawk
|April, 23, 1969
||War of attrition between Israel and Egypt
- Nasser formally declares that he is no longer bound by the terms of the armistice. Constant artillery and air duels
around the Suez canal, as well as IAF bombardment of Egyptian targets. US agreed with Israeli reports that Nasser
was violating the cease fire agreement and preparing for another war.
|Aug. 21, 1969
||Michael Dennis Rohan, a deranged Australian Christian, attempted to set fire
to the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem in order to bring about the apocalypse. The attempt triggered widespread rioting in the occupied Palestinian territories and in Arab Muslim countries.
Palestinian sources routinely claim that Rohan was Jewish or Israeli.
|Sept 1, 1969
||Army coup in Libya deposes King Idris; Col Muammar Ghaddafi
takes power and proclaims republic.
|Sept 9, 1969
||Major Israeli raid on Egypt.
|Oct. 22, 1969
||Palestinian guerillas clash with Lebanese security forces. An agreement
between al-Fatah and the Lebanese was concluded on Nov. 3.
|Nov 26, 1969
||Clash between Saudi Arabian and South Yemen troops at
|Dec. 9, 1969
||US Secretary of State William Rogers outlines US proposals for
an Israeli-Egyptian peace settlement (Rogers Plan), which are rejected by both sides.
||Fifth Arab summit in Rabat ends in disagreement.
|| War of attrition terminated by a cease fire,
July 1970, following pressure from USA and USSR on both sides.
||"Black September"- King Hussein of Jordan moves against the
increasingly menacing power of the PLO. Palestinian guerillas flee Jordan and take up residence in Lebanon.
|Sept 6, 1970
||Quadruple hijack attempt at Dawson's field. PFLP hijack Swissair, BOAC, PanAm,
El Al and TWA flights. El-Al security guards overcome their attackers, killing
one and arresting Leila Khaled. Khaled was turned over to the British, The other
hijackings met no resistance and were successful. The planes were divert
to Jordan. 310 passengers were held hostage and released after governments agree
to release Palestinian terrorists including Leila Khaled.
Lufthansa paid the the PFLP half a billion dollars ransom to release the son
of Robert Kennedy and 171 other passengers from a flght hijacked in India.wake of France
may have purchased
immunity for Air France by agreeing to maintain an anti-Israel policy.
|Sept 28 1970
||Nasser dies of cardiac arrest after negotiating
Jordan-Palestinian truce; Anwar al-Sadat comes to power in Egypt.
|May 30, 1972
||PFLP and Japanese Red Army attack at Lod Airport killed 27.
|Sept 5, 1972
||Black September movement massacres Israeli Olympic team in
Munich, triggering a systematic manhunt by Israelis for the assassins.
|Oct. 6, 1973
Yom Kippur War (October War). In a surprise
attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing
back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. In Sinai, the IDF crossed the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian Third Army.
. Israeli casualties were unacceptably high however, and both Syria and Egypt celebrate the anniversary of the war as a
|Oct. 22, 1973
||UN Security Council
Resolution 338 called for cease fire and negotiations for peace. Following the cease fire, Israel withdrew from part
of Sinai in stages, beginning with relief of the Egyptian third army, and likewise withdrew from a small part of the
|Dec - 21-29 1973
||Middle East Peace Conference convened in
Geneva, with Jordan, Egypt, SU, US & Israel attending (Syria refused). First objective is the disengagement of forces.
|Jan 18 1974
Egypt-Israel Separation of Forces Agreement
(Sinai I), opposed by Syria. UN Emergency Force takes up positions in the buffer zones established in Sinai; fully
deployed by Mar. 3.
|April 10, 1974
||Golda Meir resigns as PM of Israel following
popular protest over the Yom Kippur War. Yitzhak Rabin, former Chief of Staff of IDF and ambassador to US takes her
|April 11 1974
||Kiriat Shmona Massacre - PFLP-GC takes dozens
of teenagers hostage in Qiryat Shmona, Israel, to demand the release of prisoners. IDF storms the building, but
terrorists kill 19. Israeli reprisal raids on Southern Lebanon condemned by UN Security Council in
SCR347 on April 24.
|May 15, 1974
||Ma'alot Massacre - PLO (PDFLP) gunmen took over a school in the
northern Israeli village of Ma’alot, demand release of prisoners, killing 25 and wounding many others.
|May 31, 1974
Syria-Israel disengagement agreement over
the Golan, with Syria accepting SCR 338 (& thus 242) as a basis for peace, &
Israel partially withdrawing to establish a demilitarized zone, with UN Disengagement Observer Force separating parties.
Israel withdrew from Quneitra on 26 June, but Syria did not rebuild or repopulate the town.
||Twelfth Palestine National Council
resolves that “the PLO will struggle by every means ... to liberate Palestinian land & establish the people’s
national, independent ad fighting authority on every part of Palestinian land to be liberated." Israelis interpret this
as staged liberation of Palestine. However, this was also widely portrayed later as meaning that a State in part of
Palestine was acceptable to the PLO, eventually causing PFLP (George Habash) to leave the PLO on Sept. 26, forming the
"refusal front." PFLP rejoined the PLO in 1980.
|Oct 29, 1974
||Rabat Summit - Arab League summit in Rabat
declares that the PLO is the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. This makes it more difficult for
Israel to conclude a peace treaty with Jordan on the basis of return of the West Bank. Hussein declares that he is no
longer empowered to act for the Palestinians, and prevents possibility of negotiation with local Palestinians.
|Nov 13 1974
speaks at UN General Assembly debate on Palestine, on invitation of Oct 14 (GAR3210;
vote: 105-4), with his pistol showing. UNGA recognizes Palestinians’ right to sovereignty (GAR3236)
and grants PLO observer status (GAR3237; 22Nov).
||UN General Assembly
Resolution 3379 equates Zionism with racism. Harold H. Saunders tells house subcommittee
that the Palestinian problem is in many ways the heart of the conflict, and
that the US must seek partners who will recognize the relevant UN resolutions and engage them in dialog for peace.
|May 31, 1976
||Syria is invited into Lebanon by Maronite
||On June 27, Palestinians hijacked an Air-France Air bus to
Entebbe in Uganda. IDF Sayeret Matkal commando units landed in Uganda on July 3-4 stormed the plane and freed most of the hostages.
|Aug 13, 1976
||Lebanese militias massacre over 2000
Palestinians in the Tel Al-Zaatar refugee camp, apparently with participation of Syrian troops. According to journalist
Robert Fisk, the attack began when Yasser Arafat asked that the camps be considered a non-combat zone, and then ordered
Fatah gunmen to open fire on Christian militia. Palestinians retaliated with a massacre of Christians in Damour.
|June 20, 1977
||Likud party and Begin government took office in
Israel. Israeli settlement of the West Bank and Gaza was intensified following the rise of the Likud to power. |
|Nov. 20, 1977
||Egyptian President Anwar Sadat came to
Jerusalem, spoke in Israeli Knesset (Parliament).
|Mar. 15, 1978
||Israel invaded Lebanon (operation Litani) after
the PLO hijacked a bus on the main Tel-Aviv to Haifa highway. UN resolution 425 of March 19, 1978
called for withdrawal of Israeli forces. Israel did not fulfill the terms of Resolution 425 until May 2000.
|Sept. 17, 1978
||Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM
Menachem Begin, meeting at Camp David under the auspices of US President Jimmy Carter, sign
framework agreements for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel.
|March 26, 1979
signed between Egypt and Israel.
|April 11, 1981
||Alan Harry Goodman, an Israeli soldier and U.S. citizen, entered al-Aqsa
mosque and fires at random, killing two Palestinians. Goldman was a follower of Rabbi Kahana and was also said to be
|June 7, 1981
||Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor in daring
|Oct. 6, 1981
||Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated
while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
|April 29, 1982
||Israel completes return of Sinai to Egypt under the peace
agreement, including Yamit settlement.
|June 3, 1982
||Attempted assassination of Israeli Ambassador Shlomo Argov in
London apparently by Abu Nidal faction, backed by Iraq. Large scale bombings by Israel in Lebanon especially on W.Beirut
(4Jun). PLO send First rockets at towns in N Israel since Jul 81.
|June 6, 1982
||Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight
PLO. . UN
Security Council Resolution 509 demands that Israel withdraw all its military forces forthwith, but Israel advances
rapidly to Beirut, surrounding the capital by 13 Jun. Israeli cabinet is split on the sudden expansion of the war,
beyond the 40 KM limit originally declared by Sharon.
|June 9, 1982
||Syrian Soviet SAM radar destroyed by Israel,
Israeli-Syrian armor engagements.
||Foundation of the Lebanese Shi’ite
|Aug. 22, 1982
||PLO evacuation of Beirut. About 14,000 leave. PLO headquarters
in Tunis. Evacuation complete Sept 1.
|Aug 23, 1982
||Bashir Jemayeel made President of Lebanon.
|Sept. 14, 1982
||Lebanese President-elect Bashir Gemayeel assassinated, by
explosion of a bomb operated by Habib Tanious Shartouni, apparently an agent of Syrian intelligence. Amin Gemayeel, his
brother was elected instead, Sept 21.
|Sept. 15, 1982
||Israeli invasion of West Beirut
|Sept. 16-17, 1982
||Lebanese Christian Phalange units under Elie
Hobeika, allowed by Israeli forces to enter the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatilla, massacre between 400
and 800 Palestinian civilians. Israel Gen. Yaron and others overheard incriminating conversations between Phalange
officers but no action was taken by Israel to stop the massacre.
|24 Sept, 1982
||Peace Now movement holds record demonstration
in Israel (~300,000), demanding end to war, commission of inquiry for Sabra and Shatilla
|Nov 11, 1982
||Israeli military headquarters in Tyre destroyed
in an explosion, killing 75 Israelis and 16 of their prisoners.
|Feb 8, 1983
||Israeli Kahan commission found Ariel
Sharon and others indirectly responsible for allowing the massacre in Sabra and Shatilla.
|April 18, 1983
||Hizbulla suicide bomber destroyed the American
Embassy in Beirut, killing over 60 people.
|May 17, 1983
||Israel and Lebanon conclude an abortive
||Israel began partial withdrawal from Lebanon.
|Oct. 23, 1983
||Hezbullah suicide bomber destroyed the US Marine
compound in Beirut, killing 241.
|Sept. 20, 1984
||Hezbullah suicide bomber destroyed the rebuilt
American Embassy in Beirut, killing 25.
||Israel unity government, headed by Shimon
Peres, orders withdrawal from most of conquered Lebanese territory.
||Jonathan Pollard arrested by US authorities for spying for
Israel. He was ultimately sentenced to life imprisonment.
|Dec 8, 1987
First Intifada - Stone-throwing Palestinian
teens led by local groups took on the Israeli occupation, attacking Israeli soldiers relentlessly. The triggering
incident may have been the death of four Palestinian workers in a road accident with an Israeli vehicle.
Israelis responded with massive arrests as well as killing of about a thoursand
||Foundation of the
Hamas Islamic Brotherhood. Hamas published their Charter in
August 1988, based on the forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and advocating destruction of Israel.
|Nov. 15, 1988
||Palestine National Council of the PLO declare a
Palestinian state in absentia - See Palestinian Declaration of Independence
|May 14, 1989
Plan of May 14, 1989, calls for a negotiating process with the Palestinians very similar to the one actually
implemented by the Oslo accords.
||The Taif Accords, 1989 - were concluded
to settle the Lebanese civil war and legitimize the Syrian occupation.
||Iraq invades and conquers Kuwait.
||"Operation Desert Storm" (called "Gulf War" in US). Iraqi
missiles fall on Israel as US pushes Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Palestinians support Saddam Hussein, lose popularity in
|May 20, 1991
||Syrian-Lebanese Cooperation Agreement
|Oct 30, 1991
||Madrid Peace Conference for
peaceful resolution of the Middle East Conflict.
|June 23, 1992
||Labor party leader and former General Yitzhak
Rabin, elected Prime Minister of Israel
|April 16, 1993
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide attack at Mehola Junction in the West Bank.
A car bomb blew up outside a small restaurant. The suicide bomber and one Israeli were killed.
|Sept. 13, 1993
||Oslo Declaration of Principles -
Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition, Yasser Arafat and PLO will be allowed to return to Gaza. PLO and Palestinian
leadership renounce violence and use of terrorism, and agree to revise the PLO charter to remove chapters referring to
destruction of Israel. Over the next, years, Israel withdraws from a small area (Area A) that is given to Palestinian
sovereignty, a larger area (Area B) is given to Palestinian civil control only, while a third area of the West Bank and
Gaza strip remains under total Israeli control. Israel does not dismantle any settlements, and the number of settlers
and new settlements increases considerably.
|Feb 25, 1994
||Settler Baruch Goldstein opens fire on Muslims
praying in the Tomb of Abraham mosque in Hebron, killing 30. This massacre formed the excuse for numerous terrorist acts
by Hamas and other groups. Following the bombing, the Israel government placed restrictions on Hebron's Arab population
and closed the Tomb to visitors for a an extended period. Goldstein's grave became a shrine for right-wing
settlers. The shrine was dismantled by the Israeli government in 2000.
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) carries out suicide bombings in Israeli
towns of Afula (April 6) and Hadera (April 13), killing 13, wounding 80.
||Yasser Arafat arrives in Gaza.
|Oct 19, 1994
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bombing on a Tel Aviv bus kills
22, wounds 40.
|July 24, 1994
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bomber blows up a Dan bus in Tel
|Oct. 26, 1994
||Peace treaty between Jordan and Israel.
||Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations seem close to conclusion.
|Sept 28, 1995
||Oslo Interim Agreement
|Nov. 4, 1995
||Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli
fanatic Yigal Amir.
|Jan 5, 1996
||Israeli security service assassinates
Palestinian terrorist Yihyeh Ayash, 'The Engineer," responsible for the death of over 60 Israelis. Ayash was lionized by
Palestinians as a martyr and the PNA named a square after him in Jericho. He had
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
and was evidently their operational leader.
|Feb. 25, 1996
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bomber blows up a No. 18 bus near
Jerusalem's central bus station, killing 26 people and wounding 48 others. Less than an hour later, a second Hamas
suicide bomb explodes at a soldiers' hitchhiking station near Ashkelon, killing one and injuring 31 others. The two
attacks are said to be in retaliation for the slaying in Gaza of Yehiya Ayash.
|March 3, 1996
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bomber blows up a bus on
Jerusalem's Jaffa Road, killing 19 people and leaving at least 9 wounded. The attack takes place on the same No. 18 bus
line and almost at the same time as the previous week's attack.
|March 4, 1996
||Dizengoff Center Bombing - A suicide bomb is
detonated in Tel Aviv's Dizengoff Center, killing 13, including children, and wounding at least 130 on the eve of Purim
(anniversary of Goldstein massacre). Hamas
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
||Right-Wing Likud leader
Netanyahu elected Prime
Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
||Al-Aqsa tunnel riots - Arab sources spread the false rumor
that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of
the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
|Jan 18, 1997
||Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on
Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
|March 21, 1997
||Cafe Apropos Bombing - A Hamas
(Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
)suicide bomber detonates an
explosion at the Cafe Apropos in central Tel Aviv, killing 3 Israelis and wounding 47 others.
|July 30, 1997
||Two suicide bombers strike in the Mahane Yehuda open-air
market in Jerusalem, claiming at least 12 victims and wounding at least 150 others. Hamas and Islamic Jihad claim
||Israeli agents bungled an attempt to kill Hamas terrorist
leader Khald Mashaal in Jordan (Sept 26). To placate Jordanian public opinion, Israel subsequently released Hamas leader
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin from jail.
||Wye River Plantation talks result in an
agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct
its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and
|May 17, 1999
||Israel elects Labor party leader and Former
General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
||Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations resumed by PM Ehud Barak.
|| Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when
Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
||Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon to
international border is completed after many years of harassment by Hizbullah guerillas. UN declares Israel is compliant
with Resolution 425, but the Hizbullah continues to harass Israeli positions, kidnapping three
Israeli soldiers later in the summer.
|June 10, 2000
||Hafez Assad, President of Syria, dies. He is
quickly replaced by his son, Bashar.
||Israeli PM Barak, US President Clinton and Palestinian Chairman
Yasser Arafat meet at Camp David in a failed attempt to hammer out a final settlement.
|Sept. 28, 2000
||Start of the Second Intifada.
Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli
opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the
Haram as Sharif, holy to Muslims. Violence was apparently encouraged by
Fatah, as admitted by
Marwan Barghouti. Violence escalated rapidly from rock throwing to machine
gun and mortar fire, suicide bombings and lethal road ambushes, including some
incidents instigated by settlers against Palestinians. Israelis killed 15
Israeli Arabs in riots in September/October 2000, and nearly 5,000 Palestinians in retaliatory raids thereafter. Palestinians kill over 1,000
Israelis. Violence continued for several years and abated, but did not end, following the death of Yasser Arafat..See: Second Intifada
|Oct. 12, 2000
|Ramallah Lynching: Two Israeli soldiers
lynched in Ramallah.
USS Cole: In Aden, Yemen, a small, explosive-laden boat rams the USS
Cole, an Aegis destroyer in port for refueling, killing 17 U.S. servicemen,
|Oct. 17, 2000
||Sharm El Sheik Conference hosted by President Hosni Mubarak of
Egypt ends in promises to end violence, results in formation of the Mitchell commission.
|Oct 21-22, 2000
||Extraordinary Arab League Summit hosted by President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt commends and praises the Intifada, backs hard line positions of Palestinians.
|Dec 18, 2000
||Start of Israel-Palestinian-US Washington talks at
Bolling AFB. See:
Bridging Proposals. On December 27, Israel meets US deadline to accept
Clinton proposals according to Dennis Ross, while Palestinians request
|Jan 21, 2001
||Taba talks begin between Israelis and
Palestinians. Talks end Jan 27.
Non-Paper summarizes supposed progress at these meetings. However
The Palestinian and
Israel Proposals at Taba regarding the Refugee Problem reveal that
Palestinians are maintaining hard stance on Right of Return of refugees, while
Israel rejects massive return of refugees of 1948 war.
|Feb 6, 2001
||Right-wing Likud leader
Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising "peace and
Thirteenth Arab League summit in Beirut calls for renewal of Arab League Boycott against Israel.
recommendations for restoration of peace, return to the negotiating table are
May 7, 2001
IDF naval commandos captured the Santorini, sailing towards Palestinian Authority-controlled Gaza,
laden with weaponry. The shipment had been evidently been purchased by
Ahmed Jibril's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General
Command (PFLP-GC) The crew was reportedly planning to unload the cargo
of weapons-filled barrels off the coast off Gaza for recovery by the
Palestinian Authority .
|May 20, 2001
||Final presentation of Mitchell commission
|June 1, 2001
||Dolphinarium Discotheque in Tel Aviv hit by
suicide bomb, killing 20, including many teenagers. Islamic Jihad and Palestine Hizbulla both claim the bombing.
Also attributed to
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
|June 13, 2001
||Tenet Plan - Calls for a week of quiet, followed
resumption of negotiations and Israeli withdrawals. The week of quiet never
|August 9, 2001
||Sbarro pizzeria suicide bombing in Jerusalem by
Islamic Jihad movement kills 15, wounds 130.
|Aug 27. 2001
||Israel assassinates Abu Ali Mustafa, Secretary
General of the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine)
||Durban Conference - UN sponsored World Conference on Racism opens in
Durban. Marked by declarations that Zionism is racism and anti-Semitic rhetoric.
|Sept. 11, 2001
||Terror attacks on World Trade Center in NYC and
the Pentagon carried out by fanatic Islamic
Al-Qaeda group headed by Osama Bin Laden.
Initiates US war on terror. Israel and Palestinians agree to cease fire, but it is not implemented.
|Oct., 17, 2001
||Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
assassinates Israeli tourism minister Rehav’am Ze’evi, known for extreme right-wing views, in retaliation for killing of
Abu Ali Mustafa. After Palestine National Authority refuses to take effective action, Israeli troops enter Palestinian
areas in the West Bank
|Jan 3, 2002
||Israel captures Karine-A carrying a boatload of
illegal arms bound for Palestinian Authority as US envoy Anthony Zinni arrives to try to mediate a settlement.
Zinni is outraged.
|Feb 17, 2002
||Thomas Friedman announces
Saudi Peace Plan
in the New York Times
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
Hamas suicide bomber in Netanya restaurant kills 30
Israelis (including some who die in subsequent days) who are celebrating
Passover, wounds around 100. The PA denounces the bombing,
||Saudi peace plan adopted by Arab summit,
modified to "Arab Peace Plan" Israel would withdraw from the occupied territories
and agree to "just settlement" for refugees in return for Arab
||In retaliation for a series of suicide
bombings and attacks, Israel mounts operation "Defensive Wall" in the West Bank
on March 29, arrests Palestinian leaders and particularly Marwan
Barghouti, imprisons PNA Chairman Arafat in the "Mukata" compound in Ramalah and besieges militants in the Church of
the Nativity in Bethlehem.
Before entering towns, Israel gives the population warning and allows
civilians to leave, but many stay.During the operation, about 56 people, including at least some civilians, were killed in the Jenin refugee camp, prompting charges of a massacre by Palestinians. A proposed UN investigation of the alleged
massacres is abandoned after Israel refuses to cooperate. From objective reports, it appears that about 22 noncombatant
civilians were killed in Jenin, either wrongfully and intentionally by Israeli
troops, or when bulldozers crushed houses in the belief they were empty, or when
booby-trapped houses exploded and fell in on their occupants.
||End of sieges in Mukata; Church of Nativity.
Militants in church of nativity exiled abroad. Wanted men in Mukata jailed in Jericho. Head of PFLP allegedly
coordinated a suicide attack from his cell in Jericho.
|May 30, 2002
||PNA Chairman Arafat, under pressure for reform,
signs the 2002: PNA Basic Law that was passed several years ago by the PLC.
|June 23, 2002
||Israel decides to build the Security Fence
(Separation Wall) which evidently greatly reduces suicide bombing, but it is not
complete for several years. The fence begins to reduce terror attacks in 2003.
Fence isolates Palestinians trapped between Israel and West Bank and causes
hardship to many. Since the fence is built inside the West Bank, many claim it
is an Israeli "Land Grab."
|June 24, 2002
||Controversial speech by US President
Bush calls for Israeli withdrawal and Palestinian state, but insists the PNA must first be reformed and current
leaders replaced. Israel moves to reoccupy the entire West Bank, with the exception of Jericho.
|July 23 2002
||Israel assassinates Saleh Shehadeh, head of Hamas Izzeldin-El
Kassam armed brigades responsible for numerous terror attacks.
|Aug 16(?), 2002
||Sabri Banna (Abu Nidal), head of the Fatah Revolutionary
Council is rumored dead by assassination or suicide in Baghdad (Death is later confirmed - apparently assassinated by
Iraqi secret police).
|Libya withdraws from Arab League.
|Nov 3, 2002
||Israel government unstable as resignations of Labor party
ministers become official.
||Cairo conference of Palestinian groups, first in 20 years. Conference fails
to agree on cease fire offer to Israel. Islamist movements say PLO no longer represents the Palestinian people. |
|Jan 5, 2003
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades double suicide bombing in Tel Aviv kills 23, prompting increased action of
IDF against Hamas.
|Jan 28, 2003
||Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party,
returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
||Israel initiates a series of incursions in the Gaza strip and Nablus with
numerous civilian casualties beginning at the end of February.
|Mar 5, 2003
||Hamas suicide bombing of Haifa bus kills 17. Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on
Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
|March 6, 2003
||Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts
of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
|March 7, 2003
||UNMOVIC chief Hans Blix reports to UN on Iraqi disarmament progress. |
|March 10, 2003
||Central Council of the PLO meets in Ramalla and approves Chairman Arafat's
proposal to nominate a Prime Minister. His nominee, Abu Mazen is also approved. The Council also condemns violence
against all civilians. The appointment of a PM is due to Israeli and US pressure to reform the PNA and provide
leadership other than Arafat, who is considered untrustworthy.
||US begins invasion of Iraq by a strike against Dora
farms, where Saddam
Hussein and his sons are supposedly meeting, but Saddam escapes or was not
|April 9, 2003
||Fall of Baghdad to coalition forces.
|April 24, 2003
||Bowing to international pressure, Yasser Arafat allows the nomination
of Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) as new Palestinian PM. The Quartet (US, Britain, Russia and Spain) hope that he will
institute reforms. Israeli government backs Abu-Mazen, promises concessions.
|April 29, 2003
||Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) appointed Palestinian PM &
vows reform, but Arafat maneuvers to retain control. Violence continues. US released updated
road map on April 30
|June 4, 2003
||Aqaba Summit - Abu Mazen and Ariel Sharon vow
to stop violence, end occupation according to the road map. Hamas and Islamic Jihad vow to
continue violence. Fatah, Hamas and Islamic Jihad joined in killing four Israeli soldiers in Gaza (June 8) despite the
call to end violence from Fatah leaders.
|June 10-11, 2003
||Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas leader Ahmed Rantissi (June
10) and Hamas suicide attack that kills 15 in Jerusalem (June 11) jeopardize the future of the road map.
|Aug 20, 2003
||Hamas suicide bombing in a Jerusalem bus claims 21 lives
|August 21, 2003
||Israel, vowing that all Hamas leaders were now targets, assassinates Hamas
leader Ismail Abu Shanab. Others killed in widespread operations in the West bank; Arafat moves to replace Abbas
appointee Mohamed Dahlan as security chief in Gaza and to weaken Abbas.
|Sept 6, 2003
||Mahmud Abbas resigns; Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas
"spiritual leader" Ahmed Yassin, who is aged and crippled.
|Sept 8, 2003
||Yasser Arafat and Fatah/PLO name Ahmed Queia ("Abu Ala") as PM to replace
|Sept 10, 2003
||Twin suicide bombings kill 15 in Israel; Israel moves against against
buildings surrounding Yasser Arafat's Mukata compound on the following day. US official Condoleeza Rice insists that the
Road Map is "still on the table."
|Oct 4, 2003
||Palestinian Islamic Jihad Suicide bomber kills 20 in Arab-Jewish owned Haifa
|Oct 5, 2003
||Israeli jets strike a camp in Syria allegedly used for training Palestinian
terrorists. The strike gets US approval.
|Oct 9, 2003
||Palestinian PM designate Ahmed Qurei submits his resignation to Chairman
Yasser Arafat because of differences of opinion regarding the mandate and composition of his government's cabinet.
Increasing rumors of Arafat's illness attributed variously to cardiac problems or stomach cancer.
|Nov 12, 2003
||Palestinian PM Ahmed Qurei forms a government after a long period of
negotiations, pledging to end terror and chaos in the Palestine Authority
|Nov 19, 2003
||UN Security Council passes resolution 1515 in support of the roadmap for peace.
|Nov 24, 2003
Sharon announces Disengagement Plan for unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces if the roadmap fails to produce an end
||Geneva Accord peace plan of Yossi Beilin and
Yasser Abed Rabbo officially launched in Geneva (it was leaked at at the beginning of November). December 8 - UN General
Assembly meets in Emergency Session to adopt Resolution
ES-10/14 asking the International Court of Justice to rule on the legality of the Israeli security barrier.
|Feb 24, 2004
||International Court of Justice begins hearings on the legality of the
Israeli security barrier, Israel and Palestinians use the hearings as a platform for demonstrations about terror and the
|March 22, 2004
||IDF assassinates Hamas leader Ahmed
|April 14, 2004
||Israeli PM Sharon meets with US President George Bush, gets letter
supporting disengagement plan
|April 17, 2004
Abdel Aziz Rantissi.
disengagement plan turned down in Likud party vote May 2; After 6 Israeli soldiers are
killed when their APC is blown up in Gaza, Israel launches operation Rainbow to stop infiltration of arms across the
Egypt-Gaza border in Rafah and to widen the Philadelphi patrol road. Demolition of houses and killing of over 40
Palestinians including noncombatants evokes world protest; plans to widen the corridor by demolishing houses meet legal
snags and international protest; Fatah-Tanzim leader Marwan Barghouti found guilty on 5 counts of murder; Arab
summit in Tunis meets after postponement; Sharon proposes new disengagement plan.
|July 9, 2004
International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that
the Israeli security barrierbarrier violates international law and must be torn
down. UN GA later votes to order Israel to dismantle the barrier. Israel announces that it will ignore the ruling, but
makes changes in the barrier route according to the rulings of the Israeli High Court.
|July 12-19, 2004
||UN Envoy Terje Roede Larsen slammed by Palestinian leaders for
issuing a report that claims there is chaos in the Palestinian areas. Fighting between Fatah factions breaks out in
Gaza, amidst kidnappings of Palestinians and foreigners.
|Aug 31, 2004
||16 Israelis were killed in a suicide attack on a Beersheba bus.
This was the first successful attack in many months. Another attack in the French Hill section of Jerusalem on September
22 killed one. During this period Israeli troops continued to operate in the West bank and Gaza, catching would-be
terrorists, but also inflicting many casualties among civilians.
|Sept 26, 2004
||Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Al-Sheikh Khalil is assassinated by a car bomb in
Damascus by Mossad agents. Hamas spokesmen announce they will consider attacking Israeli targets outside Israel. Under
pressure from US, Syria forced many leaders of terrorist groups to leave Damascus.
|Sept 29, 2004
Qassam rockets launched from Gaza
kill two children in the
Israeli town of Sderoth. Israel launches operation "Days of Repentance," occupying a large area in northern Gaza,
demolishing houses and killing over 80 Palestinians by October 7.
|Oct 7, 2004
||Multiple suicide attacks in the Sinai desert against Egyptian
tourist areas frequented by Israelis including the Taba Hilton hotel and Ras al-Shaitan (Ras Satan). About 27
persons killed, mostly Israelis. Initial reports attributed the attack variously to Al Qaida and to Palestinian groups,
though Palestinian groups claimed no involvement.
|Oct 25-26, 2004
||Israel Knesset approves disengagement plan calling for
withdrawal from Gaza with the support of Labor and Yahad leftist parties. Ruling rightist Likud members and NRP
demand a referendum.
|Nov 11, 2004
||Yasser Arafat dies. Abu Mazen and Abu Ala share his powers. Abu
Mazen is selected as the Fatah candidate for head of the PNA and will have little serious opposition after Marwan
Barghouthi, who had announced his candidacy, drops out of the race in December.
|Dec. 5, 2004
||Egypt releases Azzam Azzam, Israeli Druze jailed in Egypt for 8
years on espionage charges.
|Dec 12, 2004
||An explosion destroys an Israeli Joint Verification Team (JVT)
terminal near the Egyptian-Gaza border, within Israel. Five Israeli soldiers killed. The explosion was carried out by
tunneling from the Gaza side and planting a huge explosive charge. Hamas and the Fatah Eagles take responsibility. The
attack was not condemned by the PNA.
|Dec 14, 2004
||Egypt, US and Israel sign a three way trade agreement that
allows Egypt to establish Qualified Industrial Zones (QIZ) with a small share (about 11%) of Israeli participation, with
the output of those ventures exported to the US free of tariffs.
|Jan 9, 2005
||Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National
|Jan 10, 2005
||Ariel Sharon forms unity government with Labor and United Torah
Judaism parties in Israel.
|Feb 8, 2005
||Sharm El Sheikh Summit Conference - Israeli PM Ariel Sharon,
Mahmoud Abbas, President Mubarak of Egypt and King Abdullah II of Jordan meet in Sharm El Sheikh.
Abbas and Sharon announce an end to the violence. Israel will release over 900 Palestinian prisoners and withdraw from
Palestinian cities. Jordan and Egypt will return ambassadors to Israel. The Second Intifada is deemed to be over. (See: Sharm El Sheikh
Summit 2005: Ariel Sharon Remarks,
Sharm El Sheikh
Summit 2005: Mahmoud Abbas Remarks)|
|Feb 14, 2005
||Assassination of Rafik Hariri, former PM and architect of
Lebanese reconstruction. Hariri resigned in protest over continued Syrian interference in Lebanese affairs and
occupation of Lebanon. (Commentary
|Feb 20, 2005
||Israeli cabinet approves plan for implementing disengagement.
|Feb 25, 2005
||Suicide bombing by Islamic Jihad kills 5 in Tel Aviv. Israel
freezes planned handover of Palestinian towns.
|Mar 1, 2005
||London Conference hosted by Great Britain aims at organizing
Palestinian security forces and getting financial backing for the Palestinian Authority.
||Cairo Conference - Palestinian militant groups agree to a
tahediyeh - a lull in the fighting. Hamas and Islamic Jihad will join the PLO. Hamas will participate in May
elections for the Palestine Legislative Council. Israel withdrew from Jericho and a week later it withdrew
|May 26, 2005
||Mahmoud Abbas received in White House by President George Bush and is promised an
additional $50 million in aid. Bush declares US support for a settlement based on 1949 armistice borders. Israel
releases about 400 prisoners and promises to withdraw from Palestinian cities in the West Bank. Commentary.
|June 20, 2005
||Would-be suicide bomber Wafa Bis arrested at Gaza checkpoint on
her way to carry out a suicide attack against an Israeli hospital.
|June 21, 2005
||Following visit of Condoleeza Rice, summit meeting between Abbas and Sharon ends in failure.
|June 30, 2005
||Gaza settlers initiate violent clashes, tale over an Arab house
and attempt to lynch a Palestinian youth, Hilal Majaida near Muasi. Shimshon Sitrin, Avinoam Krispin are
raids Maoz Yam hotel in Gaza where about 100 right-wing disengagement activists have gathered, and evicts them.
|July 13, 2005
|| Islamic Jihad suicide bomber kills 5 civilians in Netanya
mall. (Commentary). IDF reoccupies Tulkarm. Hamas responds with massive rocket fire on Israeli settlements and inside Israel, killing
one. Israel responds with massive manhunt against Hamas members in Hebron area and in Gaza, renewing the policy of
assassinating terror leaders, claiming they are only killing those who are about to carry out terror attacks. PNA attack
Hamas in Gaza, Hamas counterattacks. Civilians are killed in the cross fire.
Gaza Closed - Israel closes the Gaza strip to Israeli citizens other than residents. This
follows extensive settler violence and is intended to thwart a mass march organized by the Yesha (settler's) councils
intended to thwart the disengagement.
|Aug. 15, 2005
Israeli evacuation of Gaza settlements and four West Bank settlements
began on August 15 and was completed August 24.
|Sept. 1` 2005
|| Last Israeli soldiers leave Gaza. Settlements handed over to
Palestinians Sept. 12. Israel also evacuates four settlements in northern West Bank without incident. Palestinians loot and destroy
were bought for them by Jewish philanthropists.
|Sept. 15, 2005
|| Israeli PM
the United Nations, calls for peace, recognizes Palestinian rights, reasserts Israeli right to united Jerusalem,
determination to fight terror|
Sept. 15, 2005
|| Israeli Supreme court, sitting as the High
Court of Justice, rules that the security fence is not contrary to international law.
Text of Israeli High Court Ruling Regarding the Legality of the Security Fence|
|Sept. 23, 2005
|| After Palestinian authority bans parades with weapons in Gaza,
but before the ban goes into effect, the last such parade held by Hamas ends in an accidental explosion that kills about
20 people. Hamas fires about 40 rockets on Sderot, in Israel. Israel responds with massive campaign of arrests in West
Bank and targeted killings in Gaza; Hamas pledges to respect cease fire.
|Sept. 26, 2005
Ariel Sharon wins crucial
vote in Likud central committee, narrowly edging out opponents of disengagement who wanted early primaries in order to
|| PNA partial local elections give 55 seats to Fatah, 24 to
Hamas. Fighting between Fatah and Hamas in Gaza kills 3.
||Amir Peretz elected leader of the Israel Labor party, pulls Labor out of the coalition,
precipitating early elections. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon,
facing internal opposition in the Likud over disengagement, quits the Likud to form a new party, Kadima. Rafah border is
opened for Palestinians in Gaza for passage to and from Egypt. Israel promises to implement Gaza - West Bank safe
passage, but does not do so, as Palestinians fire Kassam rockets into Sderot and then into the outskirts of Ashqelon.
|Jan 4, 2006
|| On January 4,
Ariel Sharon suffered a massive stroke, leaving the leadership of Israel and the new
Kadima party in the hands of
|Jan 26, 2006
|| On January 26, the radical Islamist
Hamas movement won an upset victory in Palestinian Legislative Council elections, threatening to end about 40 years of Fateh-PLO
leadership of the Palestinians and to completely ruin hopes for peace with Israel.
Hamas spokesmen sent mixed signals, but vowed never to recognize Israel
and never to give up their claim to all of Palestine. Donor countries suspend direct aid to the Hamas until they are
willing to recognize Israel and participate in peace process. Subsequently, a mechanism is agreed upon to pay salaries
to PNA employees and give emergency humanitarian aid, but it is not implemented. Hamas smuggles in cash through the
Rafah crossing with the connivance of European monitors in order to pay salaries.
|| Over 40 Qassam rockets fall on Sderot in March, this number
increases in the next months. IDF responds with shelling of launching sites and IAF raids to kill leaders of Popular Resistance Committees, Islamic Jihad, Hamas and Fatah Al-Aqsa brigades involved in the attacks.
|May 11, 2006
in Israeli jails issue document of national unity calling for a state in West Bank and
Gaza Strip and right of return for Palestinian refugees. Hamas government rejects the document and Hamas prisoners who
signed it repudiate it. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas announced that he will hold a referendum on approval of the
document if the factions cannot agree. On June 28 a
revised prisoners' document is issued, supposedly agreed to by Hamas and Fatah. However not all factions
agree and Abbas decides to hold a referendum.
|Mar 28, 2006
|| Ehud Olmert elected PM of Israel, heading Kadima party
|| Hamas, Fatah sign
Palestinian Prisoners' Document,
supposedly cementing national unity. Israel begins operation Summer Rains, invades Gaza strip to recover kidnapped soldier Gilad Shalit
|| Israeli targeted killings in Gaza and West Bank continue,
while Hamas fires about 90 Qassam rockets into Sderot and other Western Negev communities. Seven Palestinian civilians
having a picnic at a Gaza beach are killed by an explosion attributed by Palestinians and HRW to an IDF shell. IDF
denies that it was shelling the beach at the time, and points out that shrapnel recovered from the victims does not come
from IDF shells.
|| Israeli targeted killings in Gaza and West Bank continue,
while Hamas fires about 90 Qassam rockets into Sderot and other Western Negev communities. Seven Palestinian civilians
having a picnic at a Gaza beach are killed by an explosion attributed by Palestinians and HRW to an IDF shell. IDF
denies that it was shelling the beach at the time, and points out that shrapnel recovered from the victims does not come
from IDF shells.
|June 25, 2006
||Israeli Lt. Hanan Barak, 20, of Arad and Staff-Sgt. Pavel Slutzker,
20, of Dimona were killed when Palestinian militants from the Hamas and
Popular Resistance Committees militant organizations infiltrated Israeli territory
between the Kerem Shalom and Sufa crossings, by means of a tunnel dug
from the Rafah area. Corporal Gilad Shalit was abducted, and four others were
Israel launches operation Summer rain in Gaza in
an attempt to free Gilad Shalit
|| Hamas, Fatah sign
Palestinian Prisoners' Document,
supposedly cementing national unity. Israel begins operation Summer Rains, invades Gaza strip to recover kidnapped soldier Gilad Shalit
Hezbollah terrorists cross the blue line border with Lebanon,
attack an Israeli patrol, killing 3 and capturing 2 soldiers. Additional soldier dies the following day and several are
killed when a tank hits a mine, pursuing the captors. At the same time,
Hezbollah began a series of rocket attacks on
northern Israel. In subsequent days, Israel carried out massive but selective bombing and artillery shelling of Lebanon,
hitting rocket stores,
Hezbollah headquarters in Dahya quarter of Beirut (see
and al-Manara television in Beirut, and killing over two hundred persons, many civilians.
Hezbollah responds with several
hundred rocket attacks on Haifa, Tiberias, Safed and other towns deep in northern Israel, killing 13 civilians to July
18 (See Map of Hezbollah Rocket Attacks
, and a
Hezbollah Iranian supplied C-802 missile hits an Israeli missile cruiser off
the cost of Beirut, killing 4. Hezbollah rocket also sinks at least one foreign neutral ship and damages an Egyptian one.
G-8 meeting calls for cessation of violence, return of Israeli soldier and disarmament of Hezbolla in accordance with
UN Security Council Resolution 1559 and
UN Security Council Resolution 1680.
|Aug 14, 2006
|| Lebanon Cease fire, based on
UN Security Council Resolution 1701.
|Nov. 26, 2006
|| Israelis and Palestinians announce truce to apply to Gaza strip. Israeli
incursions and arrests continue in West bank, as do Palestinian terror attempts. In Gaza, Israel holds to the truce, but
rocket fire from Gaza continues.
|Dec. 23, 2006
|| Meeting between Israeli P.M. Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Abbas;
Olmert promises to improve quality of life for Palestinians and remove checkpoints, but in practice no real changes
|Jan. 29, 2007
|| Palestinian suicide bomber kills three in Eilat.
|| Israeli renovations near the Mughrabi gate of the Al-Aqsa mosque in
Jerusalem spark widespread unrest in the Arab world, over false charges that Israel is destroying the mosque.
|Feb. 8, 2007
|| Palestinian Unity Agreement in Mecca. Hamas and Fatah agree to share power,
based on vaguely worded agreement. Hamas officials reiterate that they will never recognize Israel. US and Israel insist
that the new government must recognize right of Israel to exist, disarm terrorist groups and agree to end violence.
|Feb. 19, 2007
|| Trilateral Israeli-Palestinian-American summit with Secretary of State
Rice, PM Ehud Olmert and President Abbas ended with no visible result.
|May. 20 2007
|| Start of confrontation in Lebanon Palestinian
Refugee camp Naher el Bared between Lebanese security forces and Fatah al Islam
(Al Qaeda) militants, evidently sponsored by Syria. |
|June 15, 2007
|| Hamas Coup - Hamas forces attack Fatah in Gaza and drive them out of the Gaza strip in
brutal coup. President Mahmoud Abbas dissolves the unity government, but Prime Minister Haniyeh insists that the
government is still in power. A summit in Sharm El Sheikh (june 25) attended by Egypt, Jordan, Egypt and Palestinians pledges support to the Abbas government, but Egypt calls for reunification with Hamas.|
|Sept 2, 2007
|| End of confrontation between Lebanese army and
Fateh al Islam in Nahr el Bared refugee camp. About 220 militants and over 40
civilians were killed in the fighting. |
|Sept 6, 2007
|| Israeli air raid on claimed Syrian nuclear
structure. The structure is destroyed. The raid proves that Syria lacks an
effective air-defense system. |
|Sept 19, 2007
|| In Beirut, unidentified assailants detonate a car
bomb assassinating Christian Phalange party MP Antoine Ghanem, the 8th
anti-Syrian figure killed in the past 3 yrs.), reducing the governing
coalition’s parliamentary majority to 67 of 128 seats only 6 days before
parliament is to convene to elect a new president by simple majority. |
|Nov. 13, 2007
|| In Gaza, Hamas forces fire on Fatah demonstrators during commemoration of
the death of Yasser Arafat, killing 7 and wounding 55. |
|| U.S. convenes Middle East Summit in Annapolis Md. Israelis and Palestinians
agree to implement
roadmap under U.S. monitoring and to negotiate continuously with the aim of reaching a final status agreement by the
end of 2008.
||A tour of the Middle East by US President George Bush apparently fails to achieve support
for US Middle East policy goals. However, Israelis and Palestinians pledge to negotiate seriously regarding "core
issues" such as Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees.
Israeli government issues contradictory declarations regarding status of a building freeze in West Bank settlements and
areas of East Jerusalem annexed in the Six Day war.
|January 20, 2008
||After Israel cuts Gaza fuel supplies in retaliation for rocket and sniper
fire from Gaza, Gaza power plant, supplying abut 20% of Gaza's electricity, is shut down by Hamas, precipitating
condemnation of Israel and international outcry.
|January 23, 2008
||After months of preparation, Hamas blasts holes in Gaza/Rafah barrier, allowing hundreds of
thousands of Gazans to enter Egypt freely. Border breach is partly closed by Egyptians by January 28, but reopened by
Hamas and eventually resealed by Egypt..
|Feb, 13, 2008
||Assassination of Hezbollah terror mastermind Imad Moughnieh in Damascus.|
|Feb 27-Mar 3
||Large scale Israeli raid in Gaza kills over 100.
||Terror attack by Palestinian in Jerusalem's Yeshivat Merkaz Harav kills 8.
|May 9, 2008
Hezbollah takes over Sa'ad Hariri owned media, puts Hariri under house
arrest in Beirut, threatens coup, after Lebanese government tries to dismiss an
official belonging to Hezbollah, and close down private
Hezbollah communications network. Lebanese army, government eventually
"solve" crisis by capitulating to all
Hezbollah demands in in "compromise" selttement.
||Israel-Hamas truce in Gaza.
||Israel-Hezbollah prisoner swap deal approved.
|July 1, 2008
|| Three Israelis killed and over 50 wounded in a bulldozer
attack in Jerusalem .Police shot and killed the militant attacker.
|July 11, 2008
|| Border patrolman Lance Corporal David Chriqui, 19, of Rishon
Lezion, critically wounded in a militant attack in the Old City of
Jerusalem. He died July 23.
|July 22, 2008
||Copycat bulldozer attack in Jerusalem wounds 16
|July 28, 2008
||Fatah arrests about 50 Hamas activists in West Bank.
|July 30, 2008
||Hamas forces in Gaza detained 160 supporters
of the rival Fatah movement after three explosions, including one that
killed six people, a Palestinian human rights group says
|Aug. 4, 2008
||Israel permits Fatah loyalists fleeing Gaza repression by
Hamas (Hilles clan) to cross to Gaza
|Aug. 17, 2008
||Israeli cabinet approves release of 200 jailed Palestinians.
|Aug. 23, 2008
||Two boats of volunteer activists break Gaza blockage for the
first time. Israel permits them to arrive and depart.
|August 2008 ||Gaza
doctors affiliated with Fatah begin strike against Hamas gov't.
|Sept. 5, 2008
||Israel allows shipment of 1,000 rifles plus ammunition for
Palestinian National Authority forces.
|Sept 16, 2008
||At least 11 killed in internecine Palestinian fighting in
|Sept 17, 2008
||In primaries held after PM Olmert forced to resign over
financial improprieties, Tzipi Livni elected to head Kadima party in Israel, form new
Sept 21, 2008
||PM Olmert announces intent
|Sept 22, 2008
||15 hurt in Jerusalem when Palestinian motorist stages car
attack, running over pedestrians.
|Oct. 20, 2008
||IDF demolishes three illegal West Bank outposts.
Oct 23, 2008
||IDF authorizes 500 additional PA police in Hebron
2008|| 86-year-old Avraham Ozeri
a police officer was moderately wounded in Jerusalem by a stabbing attack
launched by 21-year-old Mohammad Elmadan, from a village near
||Tzipi Livni announces she cannot form a coalition
because of Shas party financial demands and opposition to concessions in
Jerusalem, calls for new elections.
|Nov 4, 2008
||Barack Obama elected President of the United
States. Arab world hopes for radical change in United States Middle East policy.
IDF discovers tunnel into Israel being built from Gaza, launches incursion to
destroy it. Six Hamas gunmen killed. Hamas and others launch about 35 rockets
into Israel in the coming days and IDF retaliates. Operations continue for
several days. Both sides insist they want the truce to continue.
|Nov 9, 2008
||Quartet meeting at Sharm el Sheikh reaffirms
support for Annapolis peace negotiations process.
Hamas cancels participation in the Egyptian hosted Palestinian unification
meeting that was to begin in Cairo.
|Dec. 19, 2008
||Hamas announces that the "lull" (tahidiya) has
expired and that it will not be renewed. Rocket fire from Gaza is stepped up.
|Dec. 24, 2008
||About 60 rockets and mortar shells are launched at
Israel by Hamas and associated groups from Gaza.
|Dec. 27, 2008
||Israel launches Operation Oferet Yetzuka
Cast Lead) with continuous air strikes at rocket launching facilities,
factories, smuggling tunnels, Hamas command and control centers. About 400
Palestinians are killed by December 31. Hamas broadens rocket strikes to include
Israeli towns and cities as far away as Beersheba and Yavneh.
|Jan 18, 2009
||Israel announces unilateral cease fire in Operation
Cast Lead, after killing about 1,300 Palestinians and losing a total of 13
Israeli dead. Hamas declares a cease fire later the same day, but sporadic
rocket fire continues, along with IDF retaliations.
|Feb. 10, 2009
||Israeli elections give a majority to a bloc of
right-wing parties. Though the dovish center Kadima party gets the largest number
of votes of any party, the right wing
Likud party eventually
formed a government together with the
Israel Labor party
the right wing
Yisrael Beiteynu Party
|June 1, 2009
||UN Human Rights Council investigative panel led by
Judge Richard Goldstone enters the Gaza strip to investigate alleged Israeli war
crimes, leaving June 4. Israel refused to cooperate.
|June 4, 2009
Address by President Obama in Cairo, June 4, 2009
- Historic speech of rapprochement with the Arab and Muslim world also has
direct implications for Israeli-Palestinian conflict, since the President calls
for an end to Israeli construction of new housing in settlements in the occupied territories,
as well as Arab recognition of Israel.
|June 13, 2009
||Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declared re-elected President
of Iran in elections denounced as blatantly fraudulent.
|June 14, 2009
Address by Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu at the Begin-Sadat Center, June 14, 2009 -
Netanyahu acceded to Obama demand that Israel support creation of a Palestinian
state, but refuses to end construction of housing in Israel's West Bank
settlements. Backed by U.S.A, Palestinians refuse to start peace talks with
Israel unless all Israeli construction stops in West Bank and Jerusalem.
congress in 20 years, issued
Fatah Foreign Policy Program, August 11.
|Aug. 26, 2009
Palestinian Authority issues an EU backed plan to declare a state
unilaterally within two years:
Palestine: Ending the Occupation,
Establishing the State.
Israeli P.M. Netanyahu announces settlement construction freeze to end Sept 26,
U.S. announces another clandestine Iranian nuclear facility at Qom and it is
inspected by IAEA.
|Mar 8, 2010
Announcement of construction in Ramat Shlomo (east Jerusalem) by Israeli
Minister of the Interior Eli Yishai embarrasses US VP Joe Biden, as he arrives
to kick off indirect ("proximity") talks between Israelis and Palestinians.
|April 26, 2010
(approximate date) Israel and U.S. evidently tacitly agree to East Jerusalem
construction freeze. (see here.
|May 31, 2010
Turkish ship Mavi Mamara, chartered by IHH is boarded by Israeli commandos after attempting
to run the Gaza blockade. The Mavi Marmara was part of a flotilla of
"humanitarian aid." Other ships are diverted to Ashdod and their cargoes of
cement, used clothing and outdated medicines are shipped to Gaza by Israel. IHH personnel
on Mavi Marmara beat Israeli commandos and attack them with
various weapons prepared in advance, including possibly guns, kidnapping
several. Israelis open fire killing 9. Major crisis in Israel-Turkey relations
and international outcry. IHH may have ties to A-Qaeda and other terrorist
groups. Subsequently it was found that there were no humanitarian supplies on
the Mavi Marmara.
|June 9, 2010
UN Security Council votes sanctions against Iran (Resolution
of Iranian refusal to curtail uranium enrichment program and cooperate with IAEA. Resolution is
weakened to meet Chinese and Russian objections. Brazil and Turkey vote
against the resolution. Lebanon abstains.
Israel announces that it is easing the Gaza blockade, bowing to international
pressure (see here and here).
|July 13, 2010
Israel announces public investigation (Turkel commission) of flotilla incident.
The investigation is closed in August with no public acknowledgement of serious
intelligence failures. UN launches independent probe.
|Aug 20, 2010
U.S. announces direct Israeli-Palestinian talks
|Aug 31, 2010
Drive-by shooting Palestinian attack kills four Israelis including
pregnant woman in south Hebron area. Fatah al Aqsa brigades (ref) and later
"credit." Palestinian Authority arrests hundreds of alleged
Hamas vows to continue attacks.
|Sept. 2, 2010
Direct Israeli-Palestinian talks open in Washington with Egyptian President Mubarak
and Jordan's King Abdullah in attendance at the initial ceremonies. The
sides agree to meet every two weeks.