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Timeline of Palestinian Israeli History
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Concise Timeline of Recent Israeli-Palestinian History

Nov 2, 1917 British issued the Balfour Declaration, viewed by Jews and Arabs as promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine.
1936-1939 Arab Revolt led by Haj Amin Al-Husseini. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources, mostly by British. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany.
May 15, 1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 War). Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State; British leave Palestine; Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion began. See 1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 Arab-Israeli war) Timeline (Chronology) and Israel War of Independence
April 3, 1949 Armistice - Israel and Arab states agree to armistice. Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan.
Oct. 29, 1956 Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French and British collaboration.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel.
May, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
June 5-10,1967 6-day war. Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 called for  Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace. 1967 Six Day War Timeline (chronology)
Oct. 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War). In a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. In Sinai, the IDF crossed the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian Third Army.
March 26, 1979 Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi Osirak nuclear reactor in daring raid.
Oct. 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
June 6, 1982 Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight PLO.
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles - Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition.
Sept 28, 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement signed. Palestinian Authority to be established.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir. Rabin is replaced by Shimon Peres
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
Sept, 1996 "Al-Aksa tunnel riots - Arab sources spread the false rumor that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
Oct. 1998 Wye River Plantation talks result in an agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and education.
May 17, 1999 Israel elects Labor party leader and Former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
March, 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon  visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif holy to Muslims. Start of Second Intifada See Second Intifada Timeline Second Intifada
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising "peace and security."
Sept. 11, 2001 Terror attacks on World Trade Center in NYC and the Pentagon carried out by fanatic Islamic Al-Qaida group headed by Osama Bin Laden initiate US war on terror. Israel and Palestinians agree to a cease fire, but it is not implemented.
March-April 2002 Israel conducts operation Defensive Shield in the West Bank, following a large number of Palestinian suicide attacks on civilian targets. Saudi peace initiative adopted at Beirut summit.
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
March 19,2003 US begins invasion of Iraq by a strike against a building where Saddam Hussein and other leaders are meeting. Baghdad falls, April 9.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down.
Nov 11, 2004 Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Jan 10, 2005 Ariel Sharon forms unity government with Labor and United Torah Judaism parties in Israel.
April 2005 Ariel Sharon visits US President George Bush at his Texas ranch. Syrian Army leaves Lebanon, officially ending Syrian occupation.
May 26, 2005 Mahmud Abbas visits  US President George Bush at the White House, an important symbolic gesture signaling US backing for Abbas and Palestinian aspirations. Israel releases 400 Palestinian prisoners including some with blood on their hands.  Britain confirms "low level" negotiations with Hamas.
June,  2005 Violence flares in Gaza. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Palestinian and Israeli leaders to ensure coordination of Israeli withdrawal from Gaza. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas meet in Jerusalem June 21. Sharon announces that Palestinians have promised to coordinate regarding Gaza withdrawal. PM Abbas postpones Palestinian legislative elections in order to change the election law, amidst growing concern that Hamas will trounce Abbas's Fatah party in the elections. Lebanese elections give a decisive majority to the opposition to Syria, led by Saad Hariri, son of slain leader Rafiq Hariri. 
Aug. 15, 2005 Disengagement - Israeli evacuation of Gaza settlements and four West Bank settlements began on August 15 and was completed August 24.

See detailed timeline below

Current Commentary


Detailed Timeline

1300? BCE Migration and conquest of Canaan by the Philistines and Israelite tribes. Map of Canaan.
1000? BCE Jewish conquest of Jerusalem; reign of David (maps); After the death of David's son, Solomon, the kingdom split into two: Israel in the north, Judea in Jerusalem and the south (maps).   Brief History of Early Palestine in maps.
721 BCE Fall of Israel (Northern Kingdom) to Assyria.
586 BCE Fall of Judea (Southern Kingdom) to Babylon and destruction of the first temple.
About 539 BCE Fall of Babylon. Jews allowed to return to Judea. Tradition has it that Ezra and Nehemia led this return, and later rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, but the walls were apparently not built until 100 years later.
About 519 BCE Rebuilding of the Second Temple under Persian rule.
331 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Persia. The land was subject to Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
313 BCE Ptolemy of Egypt rules Jerusalem and Judea.
170 BCE Antiochus Ephiphanes rules Judea.
166 BCE Revolt of Judah Maccabee against Syrian Hellenic dynasty; Simon. 164 - Liberation of Jerusalem. Judah is named Friend of the Roman Senate and People; Rule of the Maccabees: 166 - Judah 160 -Jonathan 143 
About 61 BCE Roman conquest of Jerusalem by Pompei. Land is divided into various provinces (maps)
40 BCE Reign of Herod the Great; Herod conquered Jerusalem in 37 BCE. Herod began an extensive restoration of the temple about 20 BC
4 BCE Probable year of birth of Jesus. Jesus was crucified between 31 and 33 AD.
66-73 AD First Jewish revolt. Fall of the Jewish Second Temple to Romans in 70 AD. Fall of Masada to Romans in 73 or 74.
133-135 Second Jewish revolt under Bar Kochba  crushed. Judea renamed Palestina. Jews are banned from Jerusalem by Hadrianus Caesar.
313 Roman Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity
614 Persians conquer Judea and Jerusalem..
622 Hijra of Muhammad. Islam is founded.
628 Emperor Heraclius defeats Sassanid Persians, reconquers Jerusalem.
About 638 Arab conquest of Jerusalem. (slightly earlier or later according to different sources). Caliph Omar provides the Christians of Jerusalem with the Covenant of Umar guaranteeing their protection. Land  divided into the Jund of filastin, in the south (capital in Al-Lod and later in Ramlah), and the Jund of Urdun in the north, with capital in Tiberias (Tabariyeh).
641 Arab conquest of Egypt.
705 Dome of the Rock (Omar) is completed by Caliph Abd’ al Malik ibn Marwan who rules from Jerusalem.
715 The Al-Aqsa Mosque is completed by the Caliph Walid.
717 Caliph Suleiman builds Ramlah
750 Rise of the Abbasids in Baghdad, full of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus.
969 Fatimid conquest. Churches and synagogues of Jerusalem destroyed.

Battle of Manzikert. The Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogenes is defeated by the Seljuk Turks, opening Asia Minor to Turkish invasion. Seljuks devastate Jerusalem.

1099 Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, slaughter most Jewish and Moslem inhabitants, expel Jews.
1187 Salah-ed-din (Saladin)  (Saladin) reconquers  Jerusalem.
1229 Jerusalem briefly held by Crusaders.
1244 Rise of Mamelukes. Jerusalem taken by Muslims.
1260 Battle of Ayn Jalut (Nazereth) - Holagu (Mongols) defeated.
1291 Crusaders defeated at Acre and evicted from Palestine.
1453 Constantinople falls to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed.
1517 Ottoman Turkish conquest of Palestine.
1537-41 Muslim walls built around Jerusalem by Suleiman the Magnificent.
1799 Napoleon conquers Jaffa but retreats before Acco (Acre, Akka); Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed in part in 1806.
1831 Egyptian Conquest of Palestine area by Mehmed Ali of Egypt, who rebelled against the Ottomans. He was forced to withdraw in 1840 under pressure by European allies.
1834 Jerusalem families including the Abu Ghosh clan revolt against Egyptian rule. The rebellion is eventually crushed.
1839 Tanzimat - reorganization program- is proclaimed in the Ottoman empire.
1840 Blood libel (accusation that Jews kill Christian children to use their blood for Passover Matzoth) against Damascus Jewry
1843 First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer, Emuna Yeshara.
1844 First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1856 Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) - including requirement to register ownership of land and pay taxes on it.
1860 First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) outside Jerusalem walls.
1878 First Zionist Settlement - Petah Tikwa.
1892 Railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem.
1897 First Zionist Congress convened in Basle, Switzerland by Theodor Herzl.
1906 Beginnings of Zionist socialist movements. First Congress of Poalei Tziyon in Poltava, under the leadership of Ber Borochov.
July 3 1908 The Young Turks revolt breaks out in the Ottoman empire, and is eventually led by Enver Pasha; Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II is forced to restore the constitution of 1876, entailing the creation of a new parliament, and indirect representative elections. ‘Abd al-Hamid is then deposed (27Apr 09), and his brother Mehmet V installed. Policies for the ‘Turkification’ of the Ottoman territories promulgated through 1909, resulting in the creation of societies promoting pan-Arab ideas
1908 First Arabic newspaper in Haifa, al-Karmil, popularizes opposition to selling land to Zionists.
1909 Foundation of Tel Aviv by Zionists (Called Ahuzat Bayit) near Jaffa; foundation of first Kibbutz - Degania.
1911 Filastin, large Arabic newspaper, launched in Jaffa.
June 15, 1914 Anglo French agreement on Baghdad railroad and Mesopotamia.
Aug 1914 Start of WW I
Nov 1914 Allies at war with Turkey
Dec 17 British protectorate in Egypt; Prince Husein Kemal becomes Khedive.
April 25, 1915 Anglo-French landing at Gallipoli
  July 1915  Husayn-McMahon Correspondence - Britain promises independence for Arabia.
Jan 6-8 1916 Allies evacuate Gallipoli.
Apr 29, 1916 British surrender to Turks at Kut, in Mesopotamia.
May  1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides up Fertile Crescent between France & Britain into zones of influence, recognizing Arab independence in part of the land.
 Jun 1916 Husayn of Arabia proclaims revolt against the Turks urged on by British promises of independence and with support of T.E. Lawrence for military operations. In October or November he was proclaimed king of Saudi Arabia, but the British supported Saud, who had been in control of Riyadh since 1902, and who made a pact with the British in 1915.
Jan 1, 1917 Britain , France and Italy recognize Husayn as king of the Hejaz.
Nov 2, 1917 British issued the Balfour Declaration, viewed by Jews and Arabs as promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine. 
Dec 1917 Gen. Sir Edmund Allenby captures Jerusalem from Ottomans for the British. Col. Reginald Storrs is appointed military governor.
Apr, 1918 Zionist commission arrives in Palestine.
June, 1918 Emir Feisal and Dr. Chaim Weizmann meet near Aqaba
Oct, 1918 British and Arabs occupy Damascus, French occupy Beirut and Alexandretta
Nov 1918 First Muslim-Christian association formed in Jaffa to oppose the creation of a Jewish homeland. Another was formed in Jerusalem soon after. Armistice between Allies and Germany, Nov 11.
Jan. 1919 First Palestinian Congress advocated incorporation of Palestine into greater Syria.
Jan 18, 1919 Paris Peace Conference opens - results in Treaty of Versailles, June 28, 1919.
March 1919 Widespread national revolt begins in Egypt against British rule after nationalist leaders were arrested and Zaghloul Pasha was exiled. The Wafd party is created.
May 19 1919 Mustafa Kemal Ataturklands at Samsun in Turkey and  begins organizing nationalist forces to oppose the sultanate & the Allied occupation
May 23 1919 Kurdish revolt against the British, led by Shaykh Mahmud Berzendji of Sulaymaniyya, who proclaims an independent Kurdistan. The revolt continued until 1931.
July 1919 General Syrian Congress (which included prominent Palestinians, Transjordanians, Lebanese & Syrians) held in Damascus, supporting the independence of an undivided Syria, and opposed to Zionism. Britain cedes authority over Syria to France after the congress finishes; Gen. Henri Gourand becomes High Commissioner.
July 19 1919 In Turkey, Ataturk creates a provisional government based in Ankara.
28 Aug 1919 Henry King and Charles Crane, the US members of the International Commission of Inquiry, sent primarily on the initiative of President Wilson, present their report based on their visit to the region in June-July, against creation of a Jewish National home in Palestine.
Feb - Mar 1920 Jewish settlements of Tel Hai and Metullah in N. Palestine attacked (Feb 20). Josef Trumpeldor killed in second attack at Tel Hai (March 1)
March 1920 Faysal elected and crowned king of Greater Syria at 2nd General Syrian Congress in Damascus; assembly proclaims independence from France of Greater Syria; rejects Balfour Declaration and Sykes-Picot agreement. Allies occupy Constantinople.
April, 1920 Musa Kazim al-Husayni, mayor of Jerusalem, is replaced by Raghib al-Nashashibi; clan rivalry grows. 
April, 1920 "Nebi Musa" Arab riots led by Haj Amin El Husseini and Aref El Aref in Hebron and Jerusalem. Forty Six Jews Killed.
Apr 25, 1920 San Remo Conference - Supreme Allied Council assigns mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France.
June 1920 Haganah,Jewish Self Defense, organized by Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky, Eliahu Golumb and others.
July 1920 Herbert Samuel named High Commissioner of Palestine. King Faisal recognizes French Mandate. French forces under Gourand retake Damascus by force with British support.  Britain arrests Palestinian notables who had supported Faysal.
Dec 1920


Histadrut, the General Federation of Hebrew Workers in the Land of Israel (Histadrut Haklalit Shel Haovdim Haivriyim Be'eretz Yisrael), was formed. Remained exclusively Jewish until 1960s, when it officially dropped ‘Hebrew’ from its name (1966).
May 1921 Arab riots in Jaffa against Jewish population.
May 10, 1921 Hajj Amin Al Husseini appointed Grand Mufti by British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel, though Husseini had been convicted of organizing riots in 1920 and had been sentenced to ten years in jail.
Jan 1922 Haj Amin El Husseini appointed President of the Supreme Muslim Council.
March 1922 British grant independence to Egypt.
June 3, 1922 The Churchill ("Command") White Paper notes that the Balfour declaration only promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and reserves East Palestine for Transjordan.
July 24, 1922 British Mandate for Palestine; Official establishment of Transjordan as a separate state; Britain, in military control of Syria, allows French forces led by Gourand to retake Damascus by force.
Nov 1, 1922 Mustapha Kemal proclaims Turkish Republic
May 25, 1923 Proclamation of Transjordanian Independence under Emir Abdullah
May 29, 1923 Palestine constitution suspended by British after Arabs refuse to participate in the government.
July 24, 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty signed by Greece, Turkey and the Allies.
Sept 29, 1923 Palestine Mandate officially comes into force.
Feb 19, 1924 Shah Ahmed deposed in Persia; Reza Khan Appointed Regent
Nov 20, 1924 Egyptian troops withdrawn from Sudan under British ultimatum, after the assassination of Sir Lee Stack.
1925 Official inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
July 20, 1925 Druze uprising in Syria, continues until June, 1927.
Oct 12, 1925 Syrian uprising against the French Mandate.
Jan 8, 1926 Ibn Saud becomes king of the Hejaz, now called Saudi Arabia.
May 23, 1926 France proclaims Republic of Lebanon.
May 20, 1927 Britain recognizes Saudi independence.
Dec. 14, 1927 Britain recognizes Iraqi independence (subject to treaty provisions) and continuing mandate.
Feb. 20, 1928 Britain recognizes Transjordanian independence (subject to treaty provisions).
July 5, 1928 Sir John Chancellor becomes High Commissioner in Palestine.
July 19, 1928 King Fuad dissolves Egyptian parliament, suspends freedom of the press.
August, 1929 Arab Riots and Massacres in Hebron,Jerusalem, Safed, Haifa, Motza and elsewhere. The Jews had set up a dividing screen at the Wailing Wall in Yom Kippur of 1928 to separate men and women worshippers, prompting rumors that the Jews wanted to build a synagogue at wall, which were spread deliberately by Hajj Amin al-Husseini. Amid heightening tensions, a demonstration by Jews in 1929 and Arab incitement ignited violence and rioting again Jews. Thousands of Jews fled the ancient Jewish quarter in Jerusalem. The Hebron Jewish community was evacuated after 64-67 were killed in riots.
Oct. 21, 1929 Egyptian Constitution restored.
1930 The Hope-Simpson Report  recommends cessation of Jewish immigration.
Oct 21, 1930 British Passfield White Paper proposes to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine.
1931 After questions in commons and League condemnation,   Ramsay MacDonald  writes to Haim Weizmann Rescinding the Passfield White Paper; IZL (Irgun or Etzel - The Irgun Tzvai Leumi) leave the Haganah, rejoin in 1936 and split again.
Oct. 3, 1932 British Mandate over Iraq terminated.
Jul-Aug. 1933 Massacre of Assyrian Christians in Iraq.
Sept. 8, 1933 King Feisal of Iraq dies, succeeded by his son Ghazi.
May-June 1934 War between Saudi Arabia an Yemen.
Nov. 2, 1934 Syrian Parliament suspended indefinitely.
Nov. 30, 1934 Egyptian Constitution of 1930 suspended.
Jan. 14,1935 Iraq-Mediterranean oil pipeline opened.
April, 1936 Farouk succeeds Fuad I as King of Egypt; Arab Higher Committee formed in Palestine.
1936-1939 Arab Revolt led or coopted by the Al-Husseini family and Fawzi al-Kaukji and financed by Axis powers. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources; most were killed by other Arabs and by British.Orde Wingate forms "night squads" for Jewish self-defense. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany.
Aug. 26, 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty ends military occupation of Egypt except in the Suez Canal zone.
Oct, 29, 1936 General Sidqi Bakr seizes power in Iraq.
1937-1938 Peel and Woodhead commissions recommend partitioning Palestine into a small Jewish state and a large Arab one.
Aug. 11, 1937 Assassination of General Sidqi Bakr, Iraqi dictator.
Oct. 1, 1937 British declare Higher Committee in Palestine an illegal body.
Oct. 16, 1937 Following assassination of British District Officer for Northern Palestine, Hajj Amin El-Husseini Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria and thence to Iraq.
Jan.-Mar. 1939 Round-table conference on Palestine in London, with Arab countries, Zionists and Palestinian representatives.
May 17, 1939 1939 White Paper limits Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 in total, restricts Jewish land purchases, envisions an Arab Palestinian state. Jews found the Mossad to arrange for illegal immigration.
Sept. 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany
Nov 25, 1940 The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Patria  (also called Patra) carrying refugees from Europe, detained in Haifa by the British, is blown up by the Jewish underground Hagana to prevent transshipment of the refugees to Mauritius. The explosion was supposed to cause a small leak. Instead, the ship sank and 252 people died.
Apr. 1, 1941 Agitation by exiled Palestinian Mufti Hajj Amin al Husseini leads to coup. Pro-Axis Government under Rashid Ali in Iraq.
May -June, 1941 British reoccupy Habbanieh and Baghdad, Rashid Ali and pro-Axis leaders flee to Teheran and Berlin; After the revolt is suppressed, a pogrom against the Jews (Farhoud) takes place in Baghdad, while British troops stand by and refuse to intervene. (Click for details of Iraq Axis coup, Mufti, British Intervention and the Farhud)
June, 1941 Free French and Australians occupy Syria and Lebanon; Britain and France guarantee Syrian independence.
Feb. 1942 British force the appointment of Nahas Pasha, a British ally, as Egyptian PM.
Feb. 24, 1942 The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Struma, forced to sail north from Turkey, is torpedoed by a Soviet submarine (either collaborating with British or because the ship was mistaken for German shipping) and sunk with the loss of  428 men, 269 women and 70 children.
Oct. 1942 Battle of El Alamein. British under General Montgomery defeat Rommel's Afrika Korps and end the Nazi threat on Egypt.
May 9, 1942 Biltmore Program - Zionist leaders, headed by Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, convene at the Biltmore Hotel in New York and set their postwar program (known as the Biltmore Program).  The program recommended an end to the British Mandate and demand Jewish control over immigration to Palestine with the aim of founding a Jewish "Commonwealth."
Oct 7, 1944 Arab leaders meet in Alexandria to discuss postwar plans for independence and ways to prevent implementation of Jewish control over Palestine.
Nov 6, 1944 Members of the Jewish LEHI underground  Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet Zuri  assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo. Moyne, a known anti-Zionist, was Minister of State for the Middle East and in charge of carrying out the terms of the 1939 White paper - preventing Jewish immigration to Palestine by force.
Mar, 1945 All Arab states declare war on Germany and Japan.
March 22, 1945 League of Arab States set up  (Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, with Musa ‘Alami as Arab States’ chosen representative of the Palestinians) with British approval to shift welfare responsibility onto local population and to ensure continuing Arab support. The goals of the league were as stated in the Alexandria Protocol, of which it was an outgrowth. Arab League charter proclaims goal of achieving closer aims between Arab States and declares that Palestine is a member of the League in a special annex.
May-June, 1945 Crisis in Syria and Lebanon. British ultimatum to French causes French to withdraw their forces.
Aug, 1945 US President Truman asks British to admit 110,000 Jewish refugees to Palestine.
Sept., 1945 British limit Jewish immigration into Palestine to 1,500 a month.
Nov. 1945 Anglo American Committee of Inquiry for Palestine appointed.
Mar, 1946 British-Tranjordanian treaty; British recognize Emir Abdullah as King of Transjordan.
Apr. 1946 Report of Anglo American Committee of Inquiry published. Recommend admission of 100,000 Jews to Palestine.
June,, 1946 Haj Amin El Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, escapes from detention in France aided by French collaborators. Husseini was to have been deported to Germany and tried for war crimes after spending the war working for the Nazis in Germany.
July 22, 1946 Irgun Jewish underground blows up British HQ in King David Hotel, Jerusalem, killing 91 persons.
Aug, 1946 British start deporting illegal Jewish immigrants to detention camps in Cyprus.
Sept, 1946 Palestine round-table conference opens in London.
Dec. 1946 Nokrashy Pasha, new Egyptian PM, repudiates Anglo-Egyptian treaty.
Feb. 1947 Britain refers Palestine issue to the UN.
May, 1947 UN General Assembly appoints UN Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
July 18, 1947 British rammed the Jewish illegal immigrant ship Exodus (formerly "President Warfield") on the high seas. They towed it to Haifa where it was the subject of extensive publicity, generating public sympathy for the Zionist cause. The passengers were eventually disembarked in Hamburg. The incident set world and particularly US opinion against the British, and caused the British to intern illegal immigrants thereafter in Cyprus, rather than attempting to return them to Europe.
Sept 1, 1947 UNSCOP Report issued, calls for partition of Palestine.
Nov. 29, 1947 UN Partition Resolution (GA 181) - Palestine was to be divided into a Jewish State and an Arab State; Jerusalem was to be internationalized. The resolution is supported by both the US and USSR. Arab countries and Arab league refuse to recognize the resolution.
Dec. 1, 1947 Arab riots in Jerusalem. Beginning of Arab blockade of Jerusalem. The period to May 1948 was characterized by numerous skirmishes, road ambushes, riots, bombings and massacres, whether organized by one of the other sides or spontaneous. The Haifa riots and massacres were typical.  In December, the Irgun began the first of its bombings in Arab Jerusalem. Beginning of the first phase of the Israel War of Independence (First Arab-Israeli War).
January 1948 Arab Salvation Army (also called Arab Liberation Army - ALA)  are admitted to Palestine by the British, following a promise not to attack Jewish settlements. Their leader, Fauzi Al-Kaukji may have entered Palestine only in March. Jewish Agency concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia, but most arms do not arrive until June 1948, after the British have left. The UN, including the US, had placed an arms embargo on Palestine. This did not apply to Arab countries including Transjordan. As independent states, they were allowed to acquire arms. The Jordan Legion received a steady supply of arms from Britain through the Suez Canal, at least until May 1948, including a large number of 25 pounder cannon at the beginning of 1948.  Hagannah agents purchased 20 Auster light aircraft in Britain, sold for scrap, rebuilt them and brought them to Palestine for use of the Haganah. Haganah later rebuilt Spitfires left by the mandate for scrap as well, but did not have real fighter and bomber aircraft until May 1948  when Czech Avia S-199 (version of the Messerschmitt 210) (and later other aircraft including B-17s) purchased clandestinely were brought into the country. Irgun bombed the Jaffa city hall January 4. It had been used as a center for organizing attacks on Tel Aviv.
January 16, 1948 Jewish convoy to Gush Etzion  intercepted, fighters killed, and bodies mutilated.
Feb. 1948 Anti-British riots in Baghdad against new British-Iraq treaty bring down pro-British government.
Mar. 1948 Provisional Jewish government formed in Tel-Aviv. Convoy to Gush Etzion ambushed in Nebi Daniel. Arabs begin to flee Haifa.
April 6-8, 1948 Arab blockade of Jerusalem is broken temporarily by Operation Nachshon. Death of Abd-El-Qader Al-Husseini at Kastel - The foremost Palestinian military leader is shot by a Jewish sentry when he wanders into Jewish held Kastel in the Jerusalem corridor thinking it is in Arab hands.
April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin Massacre - Jewish dissident underground groups - Irgun and Lehi kill over 100 Palestinian civilians in the Jerusalem village of Deir Yassin.
April 13, 1948 Hadassah Convoy Massacre - In retaliation for Deir Yassin, Arabs killed Jewish medical personnel and sick persons on their way to Hadassah hospital.
April 13-20, 1948 Operation Har'el launched by Haganah at conclusion of Operation Nachshon, does not succeed in opening the road to Jerusalem. 
April 1948 Arab flight from Haifa continues; Arab flight from Jaffa.
April 22-31 1948 Operation Misparayim launched by Hagannah to assume control of Haifa after British withdrawal and attacks by Arab forces and Irgun.
May 12, 1948 Haganah captures Tsfat (Safed). Arab population flees the city before it is captured.
May 13, 1948 Jaffa surrenders to Haganah.
May 13, 1948 Kfar Etzion Massacre - In retaliation for Deir Yassin Massacre, Arabs killed about 128 Jewish defenders at Kfar Etzion, after they had surrendered.
May 14, 1948 Remaining kibbutzim of Gush Etzion surrender. British High Commissioner Cunningham leaves Palestine. State of Israel declared on Friday May 14, in advance of the Sabbath. recognized immediately by USA and on May 17 by USSR.
May 15, 1948 British leave Palestine. Israel War of Independence (First Arab-Israeli War).(1948 War), phase II. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion begins. Egyptian attacks repulsed at Kfar Darom and  Nirim. See 1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 Arab-Israeli war) Timeline (Chronology) and Israel War of Independence
May 17, 1948 Haganah captures Acco (Acre). Most of the Arab population flees the city before it is captured.
May 18, 1948 Syrian army captures Massada and Merom Hagolan.
May 19-24, 1948 Battle of Yad Mordechai - Kibbutz falls after five days of fighting superior Egyptian regular army forces. 
May 28, 1948 Jewish quarter of the old city of Jerusalem falls to the Jordan Legion. The inhabitants were protected from the wrath of a lynch mob by the Legion under Abdullah Tell, and noncombatants were expelled to West Jerusalem. About 300 Haganah defenders were taken prisoner and sent to Jordan. The entire quarter including 58 of the 59 synagogues was demolished by the Arab mob despite efforts of the Legion.
June 11, 1948 First truce begins, lasting until 8 July.
June 23, 1948 Irgun’s Altalena ship brings weapons and 940 immigrants to Palestine. The arms shipment was a violation of UN embargo, but Israel government agreed to it, provided the Irgun handed over the weapons to IDF and formed a unified force. Irgun Commander Menachem Begin refused to hand over weapons and Irgun insisted on keeping a portion of the arms for its own use as a separate force. Palmach units of IDF under Yigal Allon attempted to capture weapons by force, killing 14 Irgun men. Yitzhak Rabin, in command of shore batteries in Tel-Aviv, was ordered to fire upon and sink the Altalena after it attempted a landing there. According to some reports, factions of the Irgun (Etzel) were planning a coup with the arms.
June, 28, 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte's first peace plan - Jerusalem to be Arab. (First Plan of Count Bernadotte for settling the Arab-Israel war of 1948)
July 08, 1948 Egyptian army breaks truce, due to end July 9. Attacks from neighborhood of Majdal (Ashdod). Israeli counterattack at Faluja was unsuccessful. This phase of the war is known as "the ten days," and included Operation (Mivtza) Dani - the Israeli conquest of Lydda (Lod) and Ramla, breaking the Arab siege of Jerusalem, and creating thousands of refugees, as well as advances in the north. During this time Israel had acquired three B-17s and some Dakotas. One of the B-17s succeeded in dropping some bombs on Cairo on its way to delivery in Israel, others bombed Damascus and Rafah. The bombing of Cairo put an end to Egyptian air-raids on Tel Aviv.
 July 10, 1948 Arab League announced the establishment of a temporary Palestinian civilian administration over Arab held-areas of Palestine, but it was never implemented.
July 12, 1948 Egyptians attack Kibbutz Negba with armor and massive troop concentrations. Israelis suffer 5 dead, 16 wounded, Egyptian casualties 200- 300 dead and wounded.
July 19, 1948 Second truce in Israel-Arab war.
Sept 17, 1948 Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte, a UN mediator, was assassinated in Jerusalem, and Lehi members were suspected. The Israel government outlawed the organization's branch in Jerusalem and shut down its publication, Hamivrak. The leaders of Lehi, Natan Yellin-Mor and Mattityahu Shmuelevitz, were sentenced to long jail terms by a military court, but were released in a general amnesty. Bernadotte, who had been instrumental in saving about 21,000 Jews in WW II, was proposing to "relieve" Israel of the Negev and force return of the Palestinian refugees. The latter proposal was adopted in UN General Assembly Resolution 194.  ( see Bernadotte Plan with map  Second plan of Count Bernadotte for settlement of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948  )
Sept 22, 1948 Palestinian States - AHC communiqué announces the establishment of the Government of All Palestine (APG; Hukumat 'Umum Filastin); Declaration of Independence  proclaimed by Hajj Amin to Palestine National Council in Gaza (30Sept-1Oct) on 1Oct, with Hajj Amin as President of the PNC, Ahmad Hilmi ‘Abd al-Baqi as PM, Jamal al-Husayni as Foreign Minister, in the Mandate territory of Palestine, with the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt. Jerusalem as capital, Gaza as seat of government. Recognized and sponsored by Egypt and Arab League, who sought to forestall ‘Abdullah’s plan to annex West Bank; strongly opposed by Jordan, who organized a much larger rival Palestinian Congress in Amman on 30Sept to support Jordan’s policy in Palestine. APG issued Palestinian passports; but with Egyptian disillusionment, HQ transferred to Cairo in Oct, Hajj Amin was confined to Cairo and his actions curtailed; many leading members left to work for Amman. Ahmad Hilmi continued to represent Palestine in the League until his death in September 63.
Oct. 15, 1948 Second truce ends; Israeli offensive breaks Egyptian siege of Israeli settlements in the Negev (Operation Yoav ). Beersheva is taken. In the north, Operation Hiram defeats the Arab Liberation army (Oct. 31).
Dec. 11, 1948 UN Resolution 194 called for cessation of hostilities, return of refugees who wish to live in peace. The resolution reflected UN and US anger over the assassination of Count Bernadotte.
Dec. 1948 Israelis advance into Egypt; Nokrashy Pasha, Egyptian PM, assassinated.
Dec 19, 1948- Jan 7, 49 Israeli Operation Horev conquers Gaza and enters Sinai. Intervention by British and US forces Israel to withdraw. Israel shot down several British reconnaissance planes, apparently unarmed (four Spitfires and one Tempest) January 7, 1949.
March 7-10, 1949 Operation Uvda- IDF captures southern Negev including Eilat with no resistance. This marks the end of actual hostilities.
Feb-Jun, 1949 Israel and Arab states agree to armistice in separate agreements. Israel-EgyptIsrael -Lebanon Israel -Jordan  Israel-Syria) Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan. The war created about 780,000 Palestinian refugees who fled or were evicted from Jewish held areas. Gaza fell under the jurisdiction of Egypt. The West Bank of the Jordan was occupied by Jordan and later annexed, consistent with secret agreements with the Jewish leadership made before the outbreak of hostilities.
April 27 – Sept 1949 Lausanne conference - Abortive Israel Arab Truce Negotiations. Minor achievements - working recognition of Israel by Arab States who attended the conference, and acceptance of UN Resolutions by both sides. However no substantive agreements were reached.
July 20, 1949 King Farouk of Egypt and PM Za'im of Syria agree on a common front against Iraq.
Aug. 1949 Syrian coup d'etat - PM Za'im executed; Colonel Hinnawi in power.
Dec. 1949 Syrian coup d'etat -  Colonel Hinnawi executed; Colonel Shishakly in power.
Jan. 1950 Wafd party win Egyptian elections; Nahas Pasha PM
Apr. 1950 De Jure British recognition to Israel and Greater Jordan (including West Bank).
May 1950 Tripartite Declaration of USA, Britain and France - Middle East security and stability are a common interest.
May 2, 1951 Mossadegh, PM of Iran, nationalizes oil industry.
July, 1951 Assassination of Jordan's King Abdulla because of rumored plans for peace with Israel. His grandson Hussein was crowned in his place following the brief reign of Tallal.
July 23, 1952 The Free Officers (al-dubbat al-ahrar) movement in Egypt - aware of royal plans to remove dissidents from the army - launch a near-bloodless military coup (only 2 fatalities). Officers were nominally led by Gen. Muhammad Najib (who was not involved in the coup's planning), though they were organized by his deputy Gamal Abdel Nasser. King Faruq was forced to abdicate on July 26 and is exiled. A new governing authority, the Revolutionary Command Council, is established on July 27, and chaired by Nasser with 8 other members (11 from early 1953). Initially, a civilian administration is set up under ‘Ali Mahir, but he opposed RCC plans for land redistribution (Sept 52), with compulsory purchase by the state, and so was dismissed and replaced with direct RCC control. Constitution is suspended (Dec 52), Parliament disbanded, parties banned (Jan 53, for a projected three year period of military rule), monarchy formally abolished, a republic declared & Najib is installed as President, with Nasser as deputy PM (June 1953) Land reform ensures that the power of large landowners and  royal family was broken. Press brought under State control, esp. influential Al-Ahram (later nationalized in 1960). At Nasser’s urging, the nationalism of Egypt's previous government - especially its opposition to Israel and Sudan - is toned down; and Najib indicates that Egypt would participate in US/UK regional defense arrangements (10 Nov), coupled with a request for economic & military aid.
Aug 11, 1952 King Talal of Jordan abdicates in favor of Hussein, aged 17.
Sept 7, 1952 Najib becomes PM of Egypt.
Jan 16, 1953 Plot against Najib in Egypt; Rashid Mehanna arrested, political parties dissolved; Najib proclaims 3 year transition period without elections,
Jam. 18, 1953 Beginning of anti-Zionist stance in USSR. Moscow accuses "Zionist agents" of murdering Zhdanov and attempting to murder other Soviet leaders.
June 18, 1953 Egypt proclaimed a Republic with Najib as President.
July 12, 1953 Shishakly becomes President of Syria.
Sept. 7, 1954 Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, succeeded by Moshe Sharett.
October 1953 IDF paratrooper unit 101 under Ariel Sharon  killed 69 civilians and destroyed a great deal of property in a raid on the Jordanian village of Qibieh. The raid was a reprisal for a raid on Tirat Yehuda.
Feb. 25, 1954 Nasser deposes Najib in Egypt and assumes chairmanship of junta. Najib regains authority 2 days later.
Feb. 27, 1954 Shishakly flees from Syria following army revolt.
April 18, 1954 Nasser ousts Najib and becomes PM of Egypt.
July 1954 The Lavon Affair: Israeli government spies, seemingly without PM Sharett’s knowledge, attempt to sabotage British & US property in Egypt to put blame on Egyptian terrorists, thus driving a wedge between Britain and Egypt, and postponing British evacuation of the Suez. The plan’s failure leads to the fragmentation of Mapai’s leadership, with recurring crises of mutual recrimination over the next decade. Ben Gurion insisted on a full investigation of the affair but was rebuffed by Lavon partisans. Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon resigns in Feb 1955.  Egypt retaliated against Egyptian Jews, some of whom were involved in the plot.
Oct 19, 1954 Anglo-Egyptian evacuation agreement signed (troops guarding canal to leave).
Nov 15, 1954 Najib dismissed as President of Egypt, after Revolutionary Command Council - alienated by his public prominence - had attempted unsuccessfully to engineer his resignation (Feb), had orchestrated pro-RCC demonstrations (25-29Mar) & had installed his main opponent, Nasser, as PM in Apr. Najib is placed under house arrest, Nasser takes over as President.
Jan. 27, 1955 Military court in Cairo sentences 2 members of Israeli spy ring to death They are executed Jan 27.
Feb, 1955 Pinhas Lavon resigns as Israel defense minister and is replaced by David Ben-Gurion;
1955 Continuous incidents between Egypt and Israel/Syria, primarily in Gaza DMZ. Operation Black Arrow (Hetz Shahor) launched by Israel in Feb 1955, following Egyptian incursions, killed 38 Egyptians, resulted in a major embarrassment for Egypt and caused Nasser to rethink his strategy with Israel.
Feb. 24, 1955 Baghdad Pact - Pact of Mutual Cooperation Between the Kingdom of Iraq, the Republic of Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Pakistan, and the Kingdom of Iran (Baghdad Pact). British/US attempt to minimize Soviet incursions and protect friendly regimes. Israel feels isolated and lacking Western protection.
Sept 27, 1955 Egyptian-Czech arms deal. Actually, the arms came from the USSR. The "Czech" source was devised by Nasser as a cover up, so as not to alarm the Americans and British.  A secret clause required Egypt to get financing of the Aswan dam from the USSR.
Nov. 2, 1955 Ben-Gurion replaces Sharett as Israeli PM.
Dec 11, 1955 Israel launched an attack on Syria following firing on a police patrol boat possibly sent as a deliberate provocation. (operation Olive Leaves), condemned in SCR111, 19 Jan 56,
April 5 1956 Increased tension between Israel & Egypt-Syria. IDF claimed 180 attacks on Israel from Gaza in past four months. Three Israelis killed April 4 when Egyptians opened fire on an Israeli patrol. Israel responded, and an artillery duel culminated in an Israeli artillery barrage aimed at the center of Gaza City (April 4-5) that killed 59, wounds about 100, mostly civilians. Egypt responded with increased commando raids, sending hundreds of fedayeen across the border in separate raids and killing 12 Israelis. Temporarily calmed through offices of UNS-G.
June 1956 Sharett resigns as Israeli FM ( dies.1965); Golda Meir takes FM post.; Last British troops leave Suez Canal base on June 13.
July 26, 1956 The US withdraws funding from the Aswan dam, USSR steps in. In response, Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal Company (26 Jul), to opposition of British (lease due to terminate in 1968). Is unanimously supported in this by the Arab League (Aug), though Iraqi leaders secretly call on the British to topple Nasser; imposition of martial law in Iraq. Britain, France and USA announce financial retaliation.
Aug. 16, 1956 London Conference on Suez Canal boycotted by Egypt.
Sept 10, 1956 Egypt rejects 18 nation proposals for Suez Canal.
Sept 19, 1956 Second London conference on Suez.
Sept. 23, 1956 Britain and France refer Suez dispute to UN Security Council.
Oct. 29, 1956

Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French and British collaboration. French and British were interested in reversing the nationalization of the canal. Israel withdraws after a UN peace keeping force is placed in Sinai, and US guarantees right of passage for Israeli shipping through the Straits of Tiran. Suez Canal reopned March 23, 1957.

1957 Fateh founded (informally) with the aim of destroying Israel. Formal establishment about 1964.
1957 (?) Construction of Israel nuclear breeder reactor using French technology begins in Dimona some time in the latter part of the 1950s. The French later tried to stop the program, but backed down when Israeli FM Peres said Israel would make the deal public. 
Feb 1, 1958 Egypt and Syria announce merger into United Arab Republic, on Syrian communist initiative in an attempt to outbid Ba‘thist call for a federal union, taken up by Syrian Ba'ath FM Salah al-Din Bitar, a  Syrian military delegation had flown to Egypt for unity talks (11Jan). Nasser, unexpectedly agrees to immediate unity. Approved by legislatures on 5Feb, and parallel plebiscites on 21 Feb (which also approve Nasser as President). Armies placed under Egypt command; Syrian political parties dissolved (Mar); Syrian "province" is headed by the left Ba‘thists under Akram Hurani. Large land redistribution schemes in both Syria & Iraq, on model of Egypt 1952. Egypt receives its first economic loan from USSR (($126 million) to promote national industries.
July 14, 1958 Revolution in Iraq ousts and murders British clients, King Feisal II and PM Nuri As-Said. Kassim becomes takes power.
July 15, 1958 US Marines land in Lebanon at the request of President Chamoun.
July 17, 1958 British paratroops land in Jordan to support Jordanian gov't following Iraqi coup.
Oct. 23, 1958 Soviet loan to Egypt to finance Aswan Dam.
Nov 18, 1959 Israel abandons earlier Jordan river diversion scheme, begins work on the National Water Carrier Project,  to divert the waters of the River Jordan from the Sea of Galilee to the Negev, taking its share of  Jordan water in accordance with Johnston plan.
1959(?) Yasser Arafat Khalil al Wazir and others found the Palestine Liberation Committee, soon renamed "Fatah" (Conquest). The organization was to be modeled on the Algerian FLN.
1960 Israeli Mossad Agents capture Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and abduct him to Israel. Eichmann had order the deaths of millions of Jews as well as Romany people and other minorities.
1961 Eichmann trial is televised and seen around the world. Eichmann was executed in June, 1962.
June 25, 1961 With Soviet support, Kassim declares Kuwait is part of Iraq.
Sept. 29, 1961 Syria secedes from union with Egypt.
Sept 27, 1962 Army coup in Yemen, Abdulla al-Sallal proclaimed PM. Nasser announces support for revolution Sept. 29.
Nov. 5, 1962 Saudi Arabia severs relations with Egypt.
Feb 8, 1963 Baathist coup against Kassim in Iraq; Kassim executed on television and approximately 10,000 alleged communist supporters killed.
March 8, 1963 Baathist coup against President Qudsi in Syria.
March 14, 1963 Egypt, Syria and Iraq open abortive unity talks in Cairo.
24 June, 1963 Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, because of his frustration at being unable to get justice in the Lavon Affair.
Nov. 18, 1963 Abdul-Salem Aref takes power in Iraq, expels Baathist government members and breaks military union with Syria.
 Jan 13-17 1964 First Arab summit at Cairo (the Egyptians count this as the third Arab Summit)  (ie. heads of State, instigated by Nasser), prompted by Israel’s R .Jordan diversion scheme and Palestinian agitation against it.  Arabs declare their intentions of stopping the Israeli diversion scheme, which is in accordance with the Johnson plan, and decided on establishment of the PLO. A Unified Arab Command under Egyptian supervision was created. This summit and the one that followed in September caused considerable alarm in Israel, and is cited by Avi Shlaim (The Iron Wall) as the actual beginning of the Six day war.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel. PLO was founded by Egypt to divert Palestinian energies from the nascent Fatah movement of Yasser Arafat, which had become anti-Nasserist.
Sept 13, 1964 Second Arab Summit at Alexandria decides on diversion of the headwaters of the Jordan as well as strengthening regional Arab armies. Arabs declare the aim of destroying Israel. Israel addressed two notes to the UN Security Council, concerning the alarming nature of the summit resolutions to destroy Israel.
Sept. 18. 1965 Third Arab Summit at Casablanca. Conference draws up staged plan for combating Israel, first building up armed forces of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon over 2.5-3 yrs & refraining from war with Israel; then proceeding to war.
April 13, 1965 Iraq President Aref killed in helicopter crash - possibly sabotage, and is succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Aref.
Nov 13, 1966 Samu'  raid: Israeli troops kill 15 Jordanian soldiers and 3 civilians, & dynamite 125 houses, in an attack on the frontier village of Samu‘ near Hebron; in response to the death of 3 Israeli soldiers by a road mine. Israel is censured by SCR228 (25 Nov 66), but no military response from Amman. This leads to recriminations in the Israeli government, which had intended a smaller scale raid, and  Palestinian anger & clashes with Jordanian security forces throughout West Bank, especially in Nablus where the army had to intervene. The PLO gains support.
May, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
May 27, 1967 Nasser cancels a planned Egyptian attack on Israel, after it became obvious that the Israelis knew about the plan.
May 30, 1967 Jordan signs a defense pact with Egypt, allows Egyptian command of Jordan Legion.
Jun 2, 1967 Moshe Dayan joins Israeli cabinet as Minister of Defense. Unity gov't formed.
June 5-10,1967 Six day war. Following a long period of tension, Israel attacks - destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 (November 1967) called for  Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace. 1967 Six Day War Timeline (chronology)
Aug-Sept 1967 Khartoum Conference - Arab summit says no to peace or negotiations with Israel.
Sept. 4, 1967 50 Egyptian officers arrested, including Commander in Chief Amer, on charges of plotting against Nasser. Amer later reported to have committed suicide
Nov 22, 1967 UN Security Council resolution 242 (November 1967) called for  Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace
Oct 21, 1967 Egyptian missile ship sinks the Israeli destroyer Eilath. Israel retaliates by heavy artillery bombardment of Suez refinery complex.
Nov 5., 1967 Pres. Sallal of Yemen Overthrown.
Nov. 30, 1967 People's Republic of Southern Yemen formed; last British troops leave Aden.
Jan 16, 1968 Britain announces intention to withdraw from Persian Gulf by 1971.
March 21, 1968 Battle of Karameh - Jordanian and Palestinian forces inflicted a partial defeat on Israel troops staging a massive retaliatory raid on a Jordanian town that had served as a staging area for guerilla attacks and a base for PLO/Fatah guerillas.. The Fatah declared a great victory and retreated into the hills. The anniversary of Karameh is still celebrated as a victory by Palestinians.
Jun 1968 Escalation along the Suez Canal. Egyptians violated the cease fire repeatedly along the Suez canal. Nasser stated as strategy that Egypt can suffer numerous casualties because of manpower reserves, while Israel cannot.
20-30 Jul, 1968 Baathist Gen Ahmed al-Bakr overthrows Aref Regime in Iraq. Rise of Saddam Hussein.
21-30 Nov, 1968 Student riots in Egypt;
Dec 1968 PFLP attack on El Al plane in Athens. One Israeli killed; Israel responds on Dec  28 with helicopter raid on Beirut International Airport. Commandos destroy 13 Arab planes and damage airport. SCR262 of 31Dec unanimously censures Israel,
Jan 6, 1969 French ban on arms supplies made public by Israel
Jan 27, 1969 Iraqis hang 14 (9 Jews) as Israeli spies.
Feb 1-4, 1969 Fifth Palestine National Council (PNC) in Cairo. Fatah gains formal control  with Yasser Arafat declared chair of Executive Committee. PNC statement sets goal of a "secular democratic state" society for Muslims, Christians & Jews.
Feb 18, 1969 PFLP attack El Al plane in Zurich; strong international condemnation.
Feb 20, 1969 PFLP bomb attacks on a Jerusalem supermarket
Feb 24, 1969 Israeli airstrike against 2 al-Fatah camps near Damascus; large no of casualties. Fatah moves to strengthen its position in Jordan; PFLP becomes more explicit in its call for the overthrow of King Hussein, seen as a Western puppet.
Feb 1969 Internal struggles in Syrian Ba‘th party: Hafez al-Assad, defense minister, takes full control over military in Syria; civilian institutions left under the control of President Atasi. Former stressed pan-Arab cooperation, especially with Egypt; latter rejected cooperation with the conservative regimes, & controlled the Sa‘iqa fida’i organization.
Mar 11 1969 Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister in Israel after death of Levi Eshkol.
Aug 29, 1969 Group commanded by Layla Khalid hijacks TWA plane flying to Tel Aviv.
March 1969 Hostilities along the Suez canal. between Israel and Egypt escalate  as Soviets supply SAM-2 radar and pilots, US supplies Israel with Phantom jets and Hawk missiles.
April, 23, 1969 War of attrition between Israel and Egypt  -  Nasser formally declares that he is no longer bound by the terms of the armistice. Constant artillery and air duels around the Suez canal, as well as IAF bombardment of Egyptian targets.  US agreed with Israeli reports that Nasser was violating the cease fire agreement and preparing for another war.
Aug. 21, 1969 Michael Dennis Rohan, a deranged Australian Christian, attempted to set fire to the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem in order to bring about the apocalypse. The attempt triggered widespread rioting in the occupied Palestinian territories and in Arab Muslim countries. Palestinian sources routinely claim that Rohan was Jewish or Israeli. 
Sept 1, 1969 Army coup in Libya deposes King Idris; Col Muammar Ghaddafi takes power and proclaims republic.
Sept 9, 1969 Major Israeli raid on Egypt.
Oct. 22, 1969 Palestinian guerillas clash with Lebanese security forces. An agreement between al-Fatah and the Lebanese was concluded on Nov. 3.
Nov 26, 1969 Clash between Saudi Arabian and South Yemen troops at al-Wadeiah.
Dec. 9, 1969 US Secretary of State William Rogers outlines US proposals for an Israeli-Egyptian peace settlement (Rogers Plan), which are rejected by both sides.
Dec 21-23 Fifth Arab summit in Rabat ends in disagreement.
July 1970  War of attrition terminated by a cease fire, July 1970, following pressure from USA and USSR on both sides.
Sept. 1970 "Black September"- King Hussein of Jordan moves against the increasingly menacing power of the PLO. Palestinian guerillas flee Jordan and take up residence in Lebanon.
Sept 6, 1970 Quadruple hijack attempt at Dawson's field. PFLP hijack Swissair, BOAC, PanAm, El Al and TWA flights. El-Al security guards overcome their attackers, killing one and arresting Leila Khaled. Khaled was turned over to the British, The other hijackings met no resistance and were successful. The planes were divert to Jordan. 310 passengers were held hostage and released after governments agree to release Palestinian terrorists including Leila Khaled.  In 1972, Lufthansa paid the the PFLP half a billion dollars ransom to release the son of Robert Kennedy and 171 other passengers from a flght hijacked in India.wake of France may have purchased immunity for Air France by agreeing to maintain an anti-Israel policy.
Sept 28 1970 Nasser dies of cardiac arrest after negotiating Jordan-Palestinian truce; Anwar al-Sadat comes to power in Egypt.
May 30, 1972 PFLP and Japanese Red Army attack at Lod Airport killed 27.
Sept 5, 1972 Black September movement massacres Israeli Olympic team in Munich, triggering a systematic manhunt by Israelis for the assassins.
Oct. 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War). In a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. In Sinai, the IDF crossed the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian Third Army. . Israeli casualties were unacceptably high however, and both Syria and Egypt celebrate the anniversary of the war as a victory.
Oct. 22, 1973 UN Security Council Resolution 338 called for cease fire and negotiations for peace. Following the cease fire, Israel withdrew from part of Sinai in stages, beginning with relief of the Egyptian third army, and likewise withdrew from a small part of the Golan heights.
Dec - 21-29 1973 Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva, with Jordan, Egypt, SU, US & Israel attending (Syria refused). First objective is the disengagement of forces.
Jan  18 1974 Egypt-Israel Separation of Forces Agreement (Sinai I), opposed by Syria. UN Emergency Force takes up positions in the buffer zones established in Sinai; fully deployed by Mar. 3.
April 10, 1974 Golda Meir resigns as PM of Israel following popular protest over the Yom Kippur War. Yitzhak Rabin, former Chief of Staff of IDF and ambassador to US takes her place.
April 11 1974 Kiriat Shmona Massacre - PFLP-GC takes dozens of teenagers hostage in Qiryat Shmona, Israel, to demand the release of prisoners. IDF storms the building, but terrorists kill 19. Israeli reprisal raids on Southern Lebanon condemned by UN Security Council in SCR347 on April 24.
May 15, 1974 Ma'alot Massacre - PLO (PDFLP) gunmen took over a school in the northern Israeli village of Ma’alot, demand release of prisoners, killing 25 and wounding many others.
May 31, 1974

Syria-Israel disengagement agreement over the Golan, with Syria accepting SCR 338 (& thus 242) as a basis for peace, & Israel partially withdrawing to establish a demilitarized zone, with UN Disengagement Observer Force separating parties. Israel withdrew from Quneitra on 26 June, but Syria did not rebuild or repopulate the town.

June 1974 Twelfth Palestine National Council resolves  that “the PLO will struggle by every means ... to liberate Palestinian land & establish the people’s national, independent ad fighting authority on every part of Palestinian land to be liberated." Israelis interpret this as staged liberation of Palestine. However, this was also widely portrayed later as meaning that a State in part of Palestine was acceptable to the PLO, eventually causing PFLP (George Habash) to leave the PLO on Sept. 26, forming the "refusal front." PFLP rejoined the PLO in 1980.
Oct 29, 1974 Rabat Summit - Arab League summit in Rabat declares that the PLO is the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. This makes it more difficult for Israel to conclude a peace treaty with Jordan on the basis of return of the West Bank. Hussein declares that he is no longer empowered to act for the Palestinians, and prevents possibility of negotiation with local Palestinians.
Nov 13 1974 Yasser Arafat speaks at UN General Assembly debate on Palestine, on invitation of Oct 14 (GAR3210; vote: 105-4), with his pistol showing. UNGA recognizes Palestinians’ right to sovereignty (GAR3236) and  grants PLO observer status (GAR3237; 22Nov).
November 1975 UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 equates Zionism with racism. Harold H. Saunders tells house subcommittee  that the Palestinian problem is in many ways the heart of the conflict, and that the US must seek partners who will recognize the relevant UN resolutions and engage them in dialog for peace.
May 31, 1976 Syria is invited into Lebanon by Maronite Christians.
June-July 1976 On June 27, Palestinians hijacked an Air-France Air bus to Entebbe in Uganda. IDF Sayeret Matkal commando units landed in Uganda on July 3-4 stormed the plane and  freed most of the hostages.
Aug 13, 1976 Lebanese militias massacre over 2000 Palestinians in the Tel Al-Zaatar refugee camp, apparently with participation of Syrian troops. According to journalist Robert Fisk, the attack began when Yasser Arafat asked that the camps be considered a non-combat zone, and then ordered Fatah gunmen to open fire on Christian militia. Palestinians retaliated with a massacre of Christians in Damour.
June 20, 1977 Likud party and Begin government took office in Israel. Israeli settlement of the West Bank and Gaza was intensified following the rise of the Likud to power.
Nov. 20, 1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat came to Jerusalem, spoke in Israeli Knesset (Parliament).
Mar. 15,   1978 Israel invaded Lebanon (operation Litani) after the PLO hijacked a bus on the main Tel-Aviv to Haifa highway. UN resolution 425 of March 19, 1978 called for withdrawal of Israeli forces. Israel did not fulfill the terms of Resolution 425 until May 2000.
Sept. 17, 1978 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin, meeting at Camp David under the auspices of US President Jimmy Carter, sign framework agreements for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel.
March 26, 1979 Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel.
April 11, 1981 Alan Harry Goodman, an Israeli soldier and U.S. citizen, entered al-Aqsa mosque and fires at random, killing two Palestinians. Goldman was a follower of Rabbi Kahana and was also said to be deranged.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor in daring raid.
Oct. 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
April 29, 1982 Israel completes return of Sinai to Egypt under the peace agreement, including Yamit settlement.
June 3, 1982 Attempted assassination of Israeli Ambassador Shlomo Argov in London apparently by Abu Nidal faction, backed by Iraq. Large scale bombings by Israel in Lebanon especially on W.Beirut (4Jun).  PLO send First rockets at towns in N Israel since Jul 81.
June 6, 1982 Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight PLO. . UN Security Council Resolution 509 demands that Israel withdraw all its military forces forthwith, but Israel advances rapidly to Beirut, surrounding the capital by 13 Jun. Israeli cabinet is split on the sudden expansion of the war, beyond the 40 KM limit originally declared by Sharon.
June 9, 1982 Syrian Soviet SAM radar destroyed by Israel, Israeli-Syrian armor engagements.
Summer, 1982 Foundation of the Lebanese Shi’ite HezbollahIslamist terror group.
Aug. 22,  1982 PLO evacuation of Beirut. About 14,000 leave. PLO headquarters in Tunis. Evacuation complete Sept 1.
Aug 23, 1982 Bashir Jemayeel made President of Lebanon.
Sept. 14, 1982 Lebanese President-elect Bashir Gemayeel assassinated, by explosion of a bomb operated by Habib Tanious Shartouni, apparently an agent of Syrian intelligence. Amin Gemayeel, his brother was elected instead, Sept 21.
Sept. 15, 1982 Israeli invasion of West Beirut
Sept. 16-17, 1982 Lebanese Christian Phalange units under Elie Hobeika, allowed by Israeli forces to enter the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatilla, massacre between 400 and 800 Palestinian civilians. Israel Gen. Yaron and others overheard incriminating conversations between Phalange officers but no action was taken by Israel to stop the massacre.
24 Sept, 1982 Peace Now movement holds record demonstration in Israel (~300,000), demanding end to war, commission of inquiry for Sabra and Shatilla
Nov 11, 1982 Israeli military headquarters in Tyre destroyed in an  explosion, killing 75 Israelis and 16 of their prisoners.
Feb 8, 1983 Israeli Kahan commission found Ariel Sharon and others indirectly responsible for allowing the massacre in Sabra and Shatilla.
April 18, 1983 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroyed the American Embassy in Beirut, killing over 60 people.
May 17, 1983 Israel and Lebanon conclude an abortive non-belligerency agreement.
Sept.3, 1983 Israel began partial withdrawal from Lebanon.
Oct. 23, 1983 Hezbullah suicide bomber destroyed the US Marine compound in Beirut, killing 241.
Sept. 20, 1984 Hezbullah suicide bomber destroyed the rebuilt American Embassy in Beirut, killing 25.
June 1985 Israel unity government, headed by Shimon Peres, orders withdrawal from most of conquered Lebanese territory.
Nov. 1985 Jonathan Pollard arrested by US authorities for spying for Israel. He was ultimately sentenced to life imprisonment.
Dec 8, 1987 First Intifada - Stone-throwing Palestinian teens led by local groups took on the Israeli occupation, attacking Israeli soldiers relentlessly. The triggering incident may have been the death of four Palestinian workers in a road accident with an Israeli vehicle. Israelis responded with massive arrests as well as killing of about a thoursand Palestinians.
Jan. 1988 Foundation of the Hamas Islamic Brotherhood. Hamas published their Charter in August 1988, based on the forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and advocating destruction of Israel.
Nov. 15, 1988 Palestine National Council of the PLO declare a Palestinian state in absentia - See Palestinian Declaration of Independence
May 14, 1989 Israeli Peace Plan of May 14, 1989, calls for a negotiating process with the Palestinians very similar to the one actually implemented by the Oslo accords. 
Nov. 1989 The Taif Accords, 1989 - were concluded to settle the Lebanese civil war and legitimize the Syrian occupation.
August 1990 Iraq invades and conquers Kuwait.
January, 1991 "Operation Desert Storm" (called "Gulf War" in US). Iraqi missiles fall on Israel as US pushes Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Palestinians support Saddam Hussein, lose popularity in Gulf states.
May 20, 1991 Syrian-Lebanese Cooperation Agreement is signed.
Oct 30, 1991 Madrid Peace Conference for peaceful resolution of the Middle East Conflict.
June 23, 1992 Labor party leader and former General Yitzhak Rabin, elected Prime Minister of Israel
April 16, 1993 First Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide attack at Mehola Junction in the West Bank. A  car bomb blew up outside a small restaurant. The suicide bomber and one Israeli were killed.
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles - Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition, Yasser Arafat and PLO will be allowed to return to Gaza. PLO and Palestinian leadership renounce violence and use of terrorism, and agree to revise the PLO charter to remove chapters referring to destruction of Israel. Over the next, years, Israel withdraws from a small area (Area A) that is given to Palestinian sovereignty, a larger area (Area B) is given to Palestinian civil control only, while a third area of the West Bank and Gaza strip remains under total Israeli control. Israel does not dismantle any settlements, and the number of settlers and new settlements increases considerably.
Feb 25, 1994 Settler Baruch Goldstein opens fire on Muslims praying in the Tomb of Abraham mosque in Hebron, killing 30. This massacre formed the excuse for numerous terrorist acts by Hamas and other groups. Following the bombing, the Israel government placed restrictions on Hebron's Arab population and closed the Tomb to visitors for a an extended period.  Goldstein's grave became a shrine for right-wing settlers. The shrine was dismantled by the Israeli government in 2000.
April, 1994 Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades)  carries out suicide bombings in Israeli towns of Afula (April 6) and Hadera (April 13), killing 13, wounding 80.
May 1994 Yasser Arafat arrives in Gaza.
Oct 19, 1994 Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bombing on a Tel Aviv bus kills 22, wounds 40.
July 24, 1994 Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades)  suicide bomber blows up a Dan bus in Tel Aviv.
Oct. 26, 1994 Peace treaty between Jordan and Israel.
May, 1995 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations seem close to conclusion.
Sept 28, 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement signed.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir.
Jan 5, 1996 Israeli security service assassinates Palestinian terrorist Yihyeh Ayash, 'The Engineer," responsible for the death of over 60 Israelis. Ayash was lionized by Palestinians as a martyr and the PNA named a square after him in Jericho. He had organized the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades and was evidently their operational leader.
Feb. 25, 1996 Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bomber blows up a No. 18 bus near Jerusalem's central bus station, killing 26 people and wounding 48 others. Less than an hour later, a second Hamas suicide bomb explodes at a soldiers' hitchhiking station near Ashkelon, killing one and injuring 31 others. The two attacks are said to be in retaliation for the slaying in Gaza of Yehiya Ayash.
March 3, 1996 A Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades) suicide bomber blows up a bus on Jerusalem's Jaffa Road, killing 19 people and leaving at least 9 wounded. The attack takes place on the same No. 18 bus line and almost at the same time as the previous week's attack.
March 4,  1996 Dizengoff Center Bombing - A suicide bomb is detonated in Tel Aviv's Dizengoff Center, killing 13, including children, and wounding at least 130 on the eve of Purim (anniversary of Goldstein massacre). Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades )claims responsibility.
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
Sept, 1996 Al-Aqsa tunnel riots - Arab sources spread the false rumor that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
March 21, 1997 Cafe Apropos Bombing - A Hamas (Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades )suicide bomber detonates an explosion at the Cafe Apropos in central Tel Aviv, killing 3 Israelis and wounding 47 others.
July 30, 1997 Two suicide bombers strike in the Mahane Yehuda open-air market in Jerusalem, claiming at least 12 victims and wounding at least 150 others. Hamas and Islamic Jihad claim responsibility.
Sept, 1997 Israeli agents bungled an attempt to kill Hamas terrorist leader Khald Mashaal in Jordan (Sept 26). To placate Jordanian public opinion, Israel subsequently released Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin from jail.
Oct. 1998 Wye River Plantation talks result in an agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and education.
May 17, 1999 Israel elects Labor party leader and Former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
Jan. 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations resumed by PM Ehud Barak.
March, 2000  Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
May 2000 Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon to international border is completed after many years of harassment by Hizbullah guerillas. UN declares Israel is compliant with Resolution 425, but the Hizbullah continues to harass Israeli positions, kidnapping three Israeli soldiers later in the summer.
June 10, 2000 Hafez Assad, President of Syria, dies. He is quickly replaced by his son, Bashar.
July, 2000 Israeli PM Barak, US President Clinton and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat meet at Camp David in a failed attempt to hammer out a final settlement.
Sept. 28, 2000 Start of the Second Intifada. Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif, holy to Muslims. Violence was apparently encouraged by Fatah, as admitted by Marwan Barghouti. Violence escalated rapidly from rock throwing to machine gun and mortar fire, suicide bombings and lethal road ambushes, including some incidents instigated by settlers against Palestinians.  Israelis killed 15 Israeli Arabs in riots in September/October 2000, and nearly 5,000 Palestinians in retaliatory raids thereafter. Palestinians kill over 1,000 Israelis. Violence continued for several years and abated, but did not end, following the death of Yasser Arafat..See: Second Intifada Timeline Second Intifada
Oct. 12, 2000


Ramallah Lynching: Two Israeli soldiers lynched in Ramallah.

USS Cole: In Aden, Yemen, a small, explosive-laden boat rams the USS Cole, an Aegis destroyer in port for refueling, killing 17 U.S. servicemen, injuring 35.

Oct. 17, 2000 Sharm El Sheik Conference hosted by President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt ends in promises to end violence, results in formation of the Mitchell commission.
Oct 21-22, 2000 Extraordinary Arab League Summit  hosted by President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt  commends and praises the Intifada, backs hard line positions of Palestinians.
Dec 18, 2000 Start of Israel-Palestinian-US Washington talks at Bolling AFB. See: The Clinton Bridging Proposals. On December 27, Israel meets US deadline to accept Clinton proposals according to Dennis Ross, while Palestinians request clarifications.
Jan 21, 2001 Taba talks begin between Israelis and Palestinians. Talks end Jan 27. The Moratinos Non-Paper summarizes supposed progress at these meetings. However The Palestinian and Israel Proposals at Taba regarding the Refugee Problem reveal that Palestinians are maintaining hard stance on Right of Return of refugees, while Israel rejects massive return of refugees of 1948 war.
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising "peace and security."
March 27-28,001 Thirteenth Arab League summit in Beirut calls for renewal of Arab League Boycott against Israel.
April 30, 2001 Mitchell commission recommendations for restoration of peace, return to the negotiating table are leaked.
 May 7, 2001 IDF naval commandos captured the Santorini, sailing towards Palestinian Authority-controlled Gaza, laden with weaponry. The shipment had been evidently been purchased by Ahmed Jibril's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) The crew was reportedly planning to unload the cargo of weapons-filled barrels off the coast off Gaza for recovery by the Palestinian Authority .
May 20, 2001 Final presentation of Mitchell commission recommendations.
June 1, 2001 Dolphinarium Discotheque in Tel Aviv hit by suicide bomb, killing 20, including many teenagers. Islamic Jihad and Palestine Hizbulla both claim the bombing. Also attributed to Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades   (Hamas).
June 13, 2001 Tenet Plan - Calls for a week of quiet, followed  resumption of negotiations and Israeli withdrawals. The week of quiet never occurs. 
August 9, 2001 Sbarro pizzeria suicide bombing in Jerusalem by Islamic Jihad movement kills 15, wounds 130.
Aug 27. 2001 Israel assassinates Abu Ali Mustafa, Secretary General of the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine)
Aug 31. 2001 Durban Conference - UN sponsored World Conference on Racism opens in Durban. Marked by declarations that Zionism is racism and anti-Semitic rhetoric.
Sept. 11, 2001 Terror attacks on World Trade Center in NYC and the Pentagon carried out by fanatic Islamic Islamist Al-Qaeda group headed by Osama Bin Laden. Initiates US war on terror. Israel and Palestinians agree to cease fire, but it is not implemented.
Oct., 17, 2001 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine assassinates Israeli tourism minister Rehav’am Ze’evi, known for extreme right-wing views, in retaliation for killing of Abu Ali Mustafa. After Palestine National Authority refuses to take effective action, Israeli troops enter Palestinian areas in the West Bank
Jan 3, 2002 Israel captures Karine-A carrying a boatload of illegal arms bound for Palestinian Authority as US envoy Anthony Zinni arrives to try to mediate a settlement. Zinni is outraged.
Feb 17, 2002 Thomas Friedman announces Saudi Peace Plan  in the New York Times
March 27, 2002 Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades Hamas suicide bomber in Netanya restaurant kills 30 Israelis (including some who die in subsequent days) who are celebrating Passover, wounds around 100. The PA denounces the bombing,
March 28 2002 Saudi peace plan adopted by Arab summit, modified to "Arab Peace Plan" Israel would withdraw from the occupied territories and agree to "just settlement" for refugees in return for Arab recognition.
March-April 2002 In retaliation for a series of suicide bombings and attacks, Israel mounts operation "Defensive Wall" in the West Bank on March 29, arrests Palestinian leaders and particularly Marwan Barghouti, imprisons PNA Chairman Arafat in the "Mukata" compound in Ramalah and besieges militants in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.

Before entering towns, Israel gives the population warning and allows civilians to leave, but many stay.During the operation, about 56 people, including at least some civilians, were killed in the Jenin refugee camp, prompting charges of a massacre by Palestinians. A proposed UN investigation of the alleged massacres is abandoned after Israel refuses to cooperate. From objective reports, it appears that about 22 noncombatant civilians were killed in Jenin, either wrongfully and intentionally by Israeli troops, or when bulldozers crushed houses in the belief they were empty, or when booby-trapped houses exploded and fell in on their occupants.

May 2002 End of sieges in Mukata; Church of Nativity. Militants in church of nativity exiled abroad. Wanted men in Mukata jailed in Jericho. Head of PFLP allegedly coordinated a suicide attack from his cell in Jericho.
May 30, 2002 PNA Chairman Arafat, under pressure for reform, signs the 2002: PNA Basic Law  that was passed several years ago by the PLC.
June 23, 2002 Israel decides to build the Security Fence (Separation Wall) which evidently greatly reduces suicide bombing, but it is not complete for several years. The fence begins to reduce terror attacks in 2003. Fence isolates Palestinians trapped between Israel and West Bank and causes hardship to many. Since the fence is built inside the West Bank, many claim it is an Israeli "Land Grab."
June 24, 2002 Controversial speech by US President Bush calls for Israeli withdrawal and Palestinian state, but insists the PNA must first be reformed and current leaders replaced. Israel moves to reoccupy the entire West Bank, with the exception of Jericho.
July 23 2002 Israel assassinates Saleh Shehadeh, head of Hamas Izzeldin-El Kassam armed brigades responsible for numerous terror attacks.
Aug 16(?), 2002 Sabri Banna (Abu Nidal), head of the Fatah Revolutionary Council is rumored dead by assassination or suicide in Baghdad (Death is later confirmed - apparently assassinated by Iraqi secret police).

Oct, 2002

Libya withdraws from Arab League.
Nov 3, 2002 Israel government unstable as resignations of Labor party ministers become official. 
Jan, 2003 Cairo conference of Palestinian groups, first in 20 years. Conference fails to agree on cease fire offer to Israel. Islamist movements say PLO no longer represents the Palestinian people.
Jan 5, 2003 Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades double suicide bombing in Tel Aviv kills 23, prompting increased action of IDF against Hamas.
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
Feb, 2003 Israel initiates a series of incursions in the Gaza strip and Nablus with numerous civilian casualties beginning at the end of February.
Mar 5, 2003 Hamas suicide bombing of Haifa bus kills 17. Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
March 6, 2003 Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
March 7, 2003 UNMOVIC chief Hans Blix reports to UN on Iraqi disarmament progress.
March 10, 2003 Central Council of the PLO meets in Ramalla and approves Chairman Arafat's proposal to nominate a Prime Minister. His nominee, Abu Mazen is also approved. The Council also condemns violence against all civilians. The appointment of a PM is due to Israeli and US pressure to reform the PNA and provide leadership other than Arafat, who is considered untrustworthy.
March 19,2003 US begins invasion of Iraq by a strike against Dora farms, where Saddam Hussein and his sons are supposedly meeting, but Saddam escapes or was not there.
April 9, 2003 Fall of Baghdad to coalition forces.
April 24, 2003 Bowing to international pressure, Yasser Arafat allows the nomination  of Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) as new Palestinian PM. The Quartet (US, Britain, Russia and Spain) hope that he will institute reforms. Israeli government backs Abu-Mazen, promises concessions.
April 29, 2003 Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) appointed Palestinian PM & vows reform, but Arafat maneuvers to retain control. Violence continues. US released updated road map on April 30
June 4, 2003 Aqaba Summit - Abu Mazen and Ariel Sharon vow to stop violence, end occupation according to the road map. Hamas and Islamic Jihad vow to continue violence. Fatah, Hamas and Islamic Jihad joined in killing four Israeli soldiers in Gaza (June 8) despite the call to end violence from Fatah leaders.
June 10-11, 2003 Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas leader Ahmed Rantissi (June 10) and Hamas suicide attack that kills 15 in Jerusalem (June 11) jeopardize the future of the road map.
Aug 20, 2003 Hamas suicide bombing in a Jerusalem bus claims 21 lives
August 21, 2003 Israel, vowing that all Hamas leaders were now targets, assassinates Hamas leader Ismail Abu Shanab. Others killed in widespread operations in the West bank; Arafat moves to replace Abbas appointee Mohamed Dahlan as security chief in Gaza and to weaken Abbas.
Sept 6, 2003 Mahmud Abbas resigns; Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas "spiritual leader" Ahmed Yassin, who is aged and crippled.
Sept 8, 2003 Yasser Arafat and Fatah/PLO name Ahmed Queia ("Abu Ala") as PM to replace Mahmud Abbas.
Sept 10, 2003 Twin suicide bombings kill 15 in Israel; Israel moves against against buildings surrounding Yasser Arafat's Mukata compound on the following day. US official Condoleeza Rice insists that the Road Map is "still on the table."
Oct 4, 2003 Palestinian Islamic Jihad Suicide bomber kills 20 in Arab-Jewish owned Haifa restaurant.
Oct 5, 2003 Israeli jets strike a camp in Syria allegedly used for training Palestinian terrorists. The strike gets US approval.
Oct 9, 2003 Palestinian PM designate Ahmed Qurei submits his resignation to Chairman Yasser Arafat because of differences of opinion regarding the mandate and composition of his government's cabinet. Increasing rumors of Arafat's illness attributed variously to cardiac problems or stomach cancer.
Nov 12, 2003 Palestinian PM Ahmed Qurei forms a government after a long period of negotiations, pledging to end terror and chaos in the Palestine Authority
Nov 19, 2003 UN Security Council passes resolution 1515 in support of the roadmap for peace.
Nov 24, 2003 Israeli PM Sharon announces Disengagement Plan for unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces if the roadmap fails to produce an end to terrorism.
Dec 2003 Geneva Accord peace plan of Yossi Beilin and Yasser Abed Rabbo officially launched in Geneva (it was leaked at at the beginning of November). December 8 - UN General Assembly meets in Emergency Session to adopt Resolution ES-10/14 asking the International Court of Justice to rule on the legality of the Israeli security barrier.
Feb 24, 2004 International Court of Justice begins hearings on the legality of the Israeli security barrier, Israel and Palestinians use the hearings as a platform for demonstrations about terror and the occupation.
March 22, 2004 IDF assassinates Hamas  leader Ahmed Yassin.
April 14, 2004 Israeli PM Sharon meets with US President George Bush, gets letter supporting disengagement plan
April 17, 2004 IDF assassinates Hamas leader Abdel Aziz Rantissi.
May  2004 Ariel Sharon's disengagement plan turned down in Likud party vote May 2; After 6 Israeli soldiers are killed when their APC is blown up in Gaza, Israel launches operation Rainbow to stop infiltration of arms across the Egypt-Gaza border in Rafah and to widen the Philadelphi patrol road. Demolition of houses and killing of over 40 Palestinians including noncombatants evokes world protest; plans to widen the corridor by demolishing houses meet legal snags and international protest;  Fatah-Tanzim leader Marwan Barghouti found guilty on 5 counts of murder; Arab summit in Tunis meets after postponement; Sharon proposes new disengagement plan.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ)  rules that the Israeli security barrierbarrier violates international law and must be torn down. UN GA later votes to order Israel to dismantle the barrier. Israel announces that it will ignore the ruling, but makes changes in the barrier route according to the rulings of the Israeli High Court.
July 12-19, 2004 UN Envoy Terje Roede Larsen slammed by Palestinian leaders for issuing a report that claims there is chaos in the Palestinian areas. Fighting between Fatah factions breaks out in Gaza, amidst kidnappings of Palestinians and foreigners.
Aug 31, 2004 16 Israelis were killed in a suicide attack on a Beersheba bus. This was the first successful attack in many months. Another attack in the French Hill section of Jerusalem on September 22 killed one. During this period Israeli troops continued to operate in the West bank and Gaza, catching would-be terrorists, but also inflicting many casualties among civilians.
Sept 26, 2004 Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Al-Sheikh Khalil is assassinated by a car bomb in Damascus by Mossad agents. Hamas spokesmen announce they will consider attacking Israeli targets outside Israel. Under pressure from US, Syria forced many leaders of terrorist groups to leave Damascus.
Sept 29, 2004 Qassam rockets launched from Gaza kill two children in the Israeli town of Sderoth. Israel launches operation "Days of Repentance," occupying a large area in northern Gaza, demolishing houses and killing over 80 Palestinians by October 7. 
Oct 7, 2004 Multiple suicide attacks in the Sinai desert against Egyptian tourist areas frequented by  Israelis including the Taba Hilton hotel and Ras al-Shaitan (Ras Satan). About 27 persons killed, mostly Israelis. Initial reports attributed the attack variously to Al Qaida and to Palestinian groups, though Palestinian groups claimed no involvement.
Oct 25-26, 2004 Israel Knesset approves disengagement plan calling for withdrawal from Gaza with the support of Labor and Yahad leftist parties. Ruling rightist Likud members and  NRP demand a referendum.
Nov 11, 2004 Yasser Arafat dies. Abu Mazen and Abu Ala share his powers. Abu Mazen is selected as the Fatah candidate for head of the PNA and will have little serious opposition after Marwan Barghouthi, who had announced his candidacy, drops out of the race in December.
Dec. 5, 2004 Egypt releases Azzam Azzam, Israeli Druze jailed in Egypt for 8 years on espionage charges.
Dec 12, 2004 An explosion destroys an Israeli Joint Verification Team (JVT) terminal near the Egyptian-Gaza border, within Israel. Five Israeli soldiers killed. The explosion was carried out by tunneling from the Gaza side and planting a huge explosive charge. Hamas and the Fatah Eagles take responsibility. The attack was not condemned by the PNA.
Dec 14, 2004 Egypt, US and Israel sign a three way trade agreement that allows Egypt to establish Qualified Industrial Zones (QIZ) with a small share (about 11%) of Israeli participation, with the output of those ventures exported to the US free of tariffs.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Jan 10, 2005 Ariel Sharon forms unity government with Labor and United Torah Judaism parties in Israel.
Feb 8, 2005 Sharm El Sheikh Summit Conference - Israeli PM Ariel Sharon, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, President Mubarak of Egypt and King Abdullah II of Jordan meet in Sharm El Sheikh. Abbas and Sharon announce an end to the violence. Israel will release over 900 Palestinian prisoners and withdraw from Palestinian cities. Jordan and Egypt will return ambassadors to Israel. The Second Intifada is deemed to be over. (See: Sharm El Sheikh Summit 2005: Ariel Sharon Remarks,  Sharm El Sheikh Summit 2005: Mahmoud Abbas Remarks)
Feb 14, 2005 Assassination of Rafik Hariri, former PM and architect of Lebanese reconstruction. Hariri resigned in protest over continued Syrian interference in Lebanese affairs and occupation of Lebanon. (Commentary More More)
Feb 20, 2005 Israeli cabinet approves plan for implementing disengagement.
Feb 25, 2005 Suicide bombing by Islamic Jihad kills 5 in Tel Aviv. Israel freezes planned handover of Palestinian towns.
Mar 1, 2005 London Conference hosted by Great Britain aims at organizing Palestinian security forces and getting financial backing for the Palestinian Authority.
Mar 16 Cairo Conference - Palestinian militant groups agree to a tahediyeh - a lull in the fighting. Hamas and Islamic Jihad will join the PLO. Hamas will participate in May elections for the Palestine Legislative Council.  Israel withdrew from  Jericho and a week later it withdrew from Jericho.
May 26, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas received in White House by President George Bush and is promised an additional $50 million in aid. Bush declares US support for a settlement based on 1949 armistice borders. Israel releases about 400 prisoners and promises to withdraw from Palestinian cities in the West Bank. Commentary.
June 20, 2005 Would-be suicide bomber Wafa Bis arrested at Gaza checkpoint on her way to carry out a suicide attack against an Israeli hospital. Commentary.
June 21, 2005 Following visit of Condoleeza Rice, summit meeting between Abbas and Sharon ends in failure.
June 30, 2005 Gaza settlers initiate violent clashes, tale over an Arab house and attempt to lynch a Palestinian youth,  Hilal Majaida near Muasi.  Shimshon Sitrin, Avinoam Krispin are arrested. IDF raids Maoz Yam hotel in Gaza where about 100 right-wing disengagement activists have gathered, and evicts them.
July 13, 2005 Islamic Jihad suicide bomber kills 5 civilians in Netanya mall. (Commentary).   IDF reoccupies Tulkarm. Hamas responds with massive rocket fire on Israeli settlements and inside Israel, killing one. Israel responds with massive manhunt against Hamas members in Hebron area and in Gaza, renewing the policy of assassinating terror leaders, claiming they are only killing those who are about to carry out terror attacks. PNA attack Hamas in Gaza, Hamas counterattacks. Civilians are killed in the cross fire.

Gaza Closed - Israel closes the Gaza strip to Israeli citizens other than residents. This follows extensive settler violence and is intended to thwart a mass march organized by the Yesha (settler's) councils intended to thwart the disengagement.

Aug. 15, 2005 Disengagement - Israeli evacuation of Gaza settlements and four West Bank settlements began on August 15 and was completed August 24.
Sept. 1` 2005 Last Israeli soldiers leave Gaza. Settlements handed over to Palestinians Sept. 12. Israel also evacuates four settlements in northern West Bank without incident. Palestinians loot and destroy greenhouses that were bought for them by Jewish philanthropists.
Sept. 15, 2005 Israeli PM Ariel Sharon addresses the United Nations, calls for peace, recognizes Palestinian rights, reasserts Israeli right to united Jerusalem, determination to fight terror
Sept. 15, 2005 Israeli Supreme court, sitting as the High Court of Justice, rules that the security fence is not contrary to international law. Text of Israeli High Court Ruling Regarding the Legality of the Security Fence
Sept. 23, 2005 After Palestinian authority bans parades with weapons in Gaza, but before the ban goes into effect, the last such parade held by Hamas ends in an accidental explosion that kills about 20 people. Hamas fires about 40 rockets on Sderot, in Israel. Israel responds with massive campaign of arrests in West Bank and targeted killings in Gaza; Hamas pledges to respect cease fire. 
Sept. 26, 2005

Ariel Sharon wins crucial vote in Likud central committee, narrowly edging out opponents of disengagement who wanted early primaries in order to oust him.

Oct. 2005 PNA partial local elections give 55 seats to Fatah, 24 to Hamas. Fighting between Fatah and Hamas in Gaza kills 3.
Nov. 2005 Amir Peretz  elected leader of the Israel Labor party, pulls Labor out of the coalition, precipitating early elections. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon, facing internal opposition in the Likud over disengagement, quits the Likud to form a new party, Kadima. Rafah border is opened for Palestinians in Gaza for passage to and from Egypt. Israel promises to implement Gaza - West Bank safe passage, but does not do so, as Palestinians fire Kassam rockets into Sderot and then into the outskirts of Ashqelon.
Jan 4, 2006 On January 4, Ariel Sharon suffered a massive stroke, leaving the leadership of Israel and the new Kadima party in the hands of  Ehud Olmert.
Jan 26, 2006 On January 26, the radical Islamist Hamas movement won an upset victory in Palestinian Legislative Council elections, threatening to end about 40 years of Fateh-PLO leadership of the Palestinians and to completely ruin hopes for peace with Israel. Hamas spokesmen sent mixed signals, but vowed never to recognize Israel and never to give up their claim to all of Palestine. Donor countries suspend direct aid to the Hamas until they are willing to recognize Israel and participate in peace process. Subsequently, a mechanism is agreed upon to pay salaries to PNA employees and give emergency humanitarian aid, but it is not implemented. Hamas smuggles in cash through the Rafah crossing with the connivance of European monitors in order to pay salaries.
March, 2006 Over 40 Qassam rockets fall on Sderot in March, this number increases in the next months. IDF responds with shelling of launching sites and IAF raids to kill leaders of Popular Resistance Committees, Islamic Jihad, Hamas and Fatah Al-Aqsa brigades involved in the attacks.
May 11, 2006 Palestinian Prisoners'  in Israeli jails issue document of national unity calling for a state in West Bank and Gaza Strip and right of return for Palestinian refugees. Hamas government rejects the document and Hamas prisoners who signed it repudiate it. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas announced that he will hold a referendum on approval of the document if the factions cannot agree. On June 28 a revised prisoners' document is issued, supposedly agreed to by Hamas and Fatah. However not all factions agree and Abbas decides to hold a referendum.
Mar 28, 2006 Ehud Olmert elected PM of Israel, heading Kadima party coalition
June 27 Hamas, Fatah sign Palestinian Prisoners' Document, supposedly cementing national unity. Israel begins operation Summer Rains, invades Gaza strip to recover kidnapped soldier Gilad Shalit and stop Qassam rocket fire..  
June, 2006 Israeli targeted killings in Gaza and West Bank continue, while Hamas fires about 90 Qassam rockets into Sderot and other Western Negev communities. Seven Palestinian civilians having a picnic at a Gaza beach are killed by an explosion attributed by Palestinians and HRW to an IDF shell. IDF denies that it was shelling the beach at the time, and points out that shrapnel recovered from the victims does not come from IDF shells.
June, 2006 Israeli targeted killings in Gaza and West Bank continue, while Hamas fires about 90 Qassam rockets into Sderot and other Western Negev communities. Seven Palestinian civilians having a picnic at a Gaza beach are killed by an explosion attributed by Palestinians and HRW to an IDF shell. IDF denies that it was shelling the beach at the time, and points out that shrapnel recovered from the victims does not come from IDF shells.
June 25, 2006 Israeli Lt. Hanan Barak, 20, of Arad and Staff-Sgt. Pavel Slutzker, 20, of Dimona were killed when Palestinian militants from the Hamas  and Popular Resistance Committees militant organizations infiltrated Israeli territory between the Kerem Shalom and Sufa crossings, by means of a tunnel dug from the Rafah area. Corporal Gilad Shalit was abducted, and four others were wounded.

Israel launches operation Summer rain in Gaza in an attempt to free Gilad Shalit

June 27 Hamas, Fatah sign Palestinian Prisoners' Document, supposedly cementing national unity. Israel begins operation Summer Rains, invades Gaza strip to recover kidnapped soldier Gilad Shalit and stop Qassam rocket fire..  
July 12 Hezbollah terrorists cross the blue line border with Lebanon, attack an Israeli patrol, killing 3 and capturing 2 soldiers. Additional soldier dies the following day and several are killed when a tank hits a mine, pursuing the captors. At the same time, Hezbollah began a series of rocket attacks on northern Israel. In subsequent days, Israel carried out massive but selective bombing and artillery shelling of Lebanon, hitting rocket stores, Hezbollah headquarters in Dahya quarter of Beirut (see Beirut Map) and al-Manara television in Beirut, and killing over two hundred persons, many civilians. Hezbollah responds with several hundred rocket attacks on Haifa, Tiberias, Safed and other towns deep in northern Israel, killing 13 civilians to July 18 (See Map of Hezbollah Rocket Attacks ) , and a Hezbollah Iranian supplied C-802 missile hits an Israeli missile cruiser off the cost of Beirut, killing 4. Hezbollah rocket also sinks at least one foreign neutral ship and damages an Egyptian one. G-8 meeting calls for cessation of violence, return of Israeli soldier and disarmament of Hezbolla in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1559 and UN Security Council Resolution 1680
Aug 14, 2006 Lebanon Cease fire, based on UN Security Council Resolution 1701.
Nov. 26, 2006 Israelis and Palestinians announce truce to apply to Gaza strip. Israeli incursions and arrests continue in West bank, as do Palestinian terror attempts. In Gaza, Israel holds to the truce, but rocket fire from Gaza continues.
Dec. 23, 2006 Meeting between Israeli P.M. Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Abbas; Olmert promises to improve quality of life for Palestinians and remove checkpoints, but in practice no real changes occurred 
Jan. 29, 2007 Palestinian suicide bomber kills three in Eilat.
Feb. 2007 Israeli renovations near the Mughrabi gate of the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem spark widespread unrest in the Arab world, over false charges that Israel is destroying the mosque.
Feb. 8, 2007 Palestinian Unity Agreement in Mecca. Hamas and Fatah agree to share power, based on vaguely worded agreement. Hamas officials reiterate that they will never recognize Israel. US and Israel insist that the new government must recognize right of Israel to exist, disarm terrorist groups and agree to end violence.
Feb. 19, 2007 Trilateral Israeli-Palestinian-American summit with Secretary of State Rice, PM Ehud Olmert and President Abbas ended with no visible result.
May. 20 2007 Start of confrontation in Lebanon Palestinian Refugee camp Naher el Bared between Lebanese security forces and Fatah al Islam (Al Qaeda) militants, evidently sponsored by Syria.
June 15, 2007 Hamas Coup - Hamas forces attack Fatah in Gaza and drive them out of the Gaza strip in brutal coup. President Mahmoud Abbas dissolves the unity government, but Prime Minister Haniyeh insists that the government is still in power. A summit in Sharm El Sheikh (june 25) attended by Egypt, Jordan, Egypt and Palestinians pledges support to the Abbas government, but Egypt calls for reunification with Hamas.
Sept 2, 2007 End of confrontation between Lebanese army and Fateh al Islam in Nahr el Bared refugee camp. About 220 militants and over 40 civilians were killed in the fighting.
Sept 6, 2007 Israeli air raid on claimed Syrian nuclear structure. The structure is destroyed. The raid proves that Syria lacks an effective air-defense system.
Sept 19, 2007 In Beirut, unidentified assailants detonate a car bomb assassinating Christian Phalange party MP Antoine Ghanem, the 8th anti-Syrian figure killed in the past 3 yrs.), reducing the governing coalition’s parliamentary majority to 67 of 128 seats only 6 days before parliament is to convene to elect a new president by simple majority.
Nov. 13, 2007 In Gaza, Hamas forces fire on Fatah demonstrators during commemoration of the death of Yasser Arafat, killing 7 and wounding 55.
Nov. 26-28 U.S. convenes Middle East Summit in Annapolis Md. Israelis and Palestinians agree to implement roadmap under U.S. monitoring and to negotiate continuously with the aim of reaching a final status agreement by the end of 2008. 
January, 2008 A tour of the Middle East by US President George Bush apparently fails to achieve support for US Middle East policy goals. However, Israelis and Palestinians pledge to negotiate seriously regarding "core issues" such as Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees. Israeli government issues contradictory declarations regarding status of a building freeze in West Bank settlements and areas of East Jerusalem annexed in the Six Day war.
January 20, 2008 After Israel cuts Gaza fuel supplies in retaliation for rocket and sniper fire from Gaza, Gaza power plant, supplying abut 20% of Gaza's electricity, is shut down by Hamas, precipitating condemnation of Israel and international outcry.
January 23, 2008 After months of preparation, Hamas blasts holes in Gaza/Rafah barrier, allowing hundreds of thousands of Gazans to enter Egypt freely. Border breach is partly closed by Egyptians by January 28, but reopened by Hamas and eventually resealed by Egypt..
Feb, 13, 2008 Assassination of Hezbollah terror mastermind Imad Moughnieh in Damascus.
Feb 27-Mar 3 Large scale Israeli raid in Gaza kills over 100.
March 6 Terror attack by Palestinian in Jerusalem's Yeshivat Merkaz Harav kills 8.
May 9, 2008 Hezbollah takes over Sa'ad Hariri owned media, puts Hariri under house arrest in Beirut, threatens coup, after Lebanese government tries to dismiss an official belonging to Hezbollah, and close down private Hezbollah communications network. Lebanese army, government eventually "solve" crisis by capitulating to all Hezbollah demands in in "compromise" selttement.  
June 19 Israel-Hamas truce in Gaza.
June 29 Israel-Hezbollah prisoner swap deal approved.
July 1, 2008 Three  Israelis killed and over 50 wounded in a bulldozer attack in Jerusalem .Police shot and killed the militant attacker.
July 11, 2008 Border patrolman Lance Corporal David Chriqui, 19, of Rishon Lezion, critically wounded in a militant attack in the Old City of Jerusalem. He died July 23.
July 22, 2008 Copycat bulldozer attack in Jerusalem wounds 16  Israelis.
July 28, 2008 Fatah arrests about 50 Hamas activists in West Bank.
July 30, 2008 Hamas forces in Gaza detained 160 supporters of the rival Fatah movement after three explosions, including one that killed six people, a Palestinian human rights group says
Aug. 4, 2008 Israel permits Fatah loyalists fleeing Gaza repression by Hamas (Hilles clan) to cross to Gaza
Aug. 17, 2008 Israeli cabinet approves release of 200 jailed Palestinians.
Aug. 23, 2008 Two boats of volunteer activists break Gaza blockage for the first time. Israel permits them to arrive and depart.
August 2008 Gaza doctors affiliated with Fatah begin strike against Hamas gov't.
Sept. 5, 2008 Israel allows shipment of 1,000 rifles plus ammunition for Palestinian National Authority forces.
Sept 16, 2008 At least 11 killed in internecine Palestinian fighting in Gaza.
Sept 17, 2008 In primaries held after PM Olmert forced to resign over financial improprieties, Tzipi Livni elected to head Kadima party in Israel, form new government.
Sept 21, 2008 PM Olmert  announces intent to resign.
Sept 22, 2008 15 hurt in Jerusalem when Palestinian motorist stages car attack, running over pedestrians.
Oct. 20, 2008 IDF demolishes three illegal West Bank outposts.
Oct 23, 2008 IDF authorizes 500 additional PA police in Hebron
Oct 23, 2008 86-year-old Avraham Ozeri killed and a police officer was moderately wounded in Jerusalem by a stabbing attack launched by 21-year-old Mohammad Elmadan, from a village near Bethlehem.
Oct 26, 2008 Tzipi Livni announces she cannot form a coalition because of Shas party financial demands and opposition to concessions in Jerusalem, calls for new elections.
Nov 4, 2008 Barack Obama elected President of the United States. Arab world hopes for radical change in United States Middle East policy.

IDF discovers tunnel into Israel being built from Gaza, launches incursion to destroy it. Six Hamas gunmen killed. Hamas and others launch about 35 rockets into Israel in the coming days and IDF retaliates. Operations continue for several days. Both sides insist they want the truce to continue.

Nov 9, 2008 Quartet meeting at Sharm el Sheikh reaffirms support for Annapolis peace negotiations process.

Hamas cancels participation in the Egyptian hosted Palestinian unification meeting that was to begin in Cairo.

Dec. 19, 2008 Hamas announces that the "lull" (tahidiya) has expired and that it will not be renewed. Rocket fire from Gaza is stepped up.
Dec. 24, 2008 About 60 rockets and mortar shells are launched at Israel by Hamas and associated groups from Gaza. 
Dec. 27, 2008 Israel launches Operation Oferet Yetzuka (Operation Cast Lead) with continuous air strikes at rocket launching facilities, factories, smuggling tunnels, Hamas command and control centers. About 400 Palestinians are killed by December 31. Hamas broadens rocket strikes to include Israeli towns and cities as far away as Beersheba and Yavneh. 
Jan 18, 2009 Israel announces unilateral cease fire in Operation Cast Lead, after killing about 1,300 Palestinians and losing a total of 13 Israeli dead. Hamas declares a cease fire later the same day, but sporadic rocket fire continues, along with IDF retaliations.
Feb. 10, 2009 Israeli elections give a majority to a bloc of right-wing parties. Though the dovish center Kadima party gets the largest number of votes of any party, the right wing Likud party eventually formed a government together with the Israel Labor party and the right wing Yisrael Beiteynu Party 
June 1, 2009 UN Human Rights Council investigative panel led by Judge Richard Goldstone enters the Gaza strip to investigate alleged Israeli war crimes, leaving June 4. Israel refused to cooperate.
June 4, 2009 Address by President Obama in Cairo, June 4, 2009 - Historic speech of rapprochement with the Arab and Muslim world also has direct implications for Israeli-Palestinian conflict, since the President calls for an end to Israeli construction of new housing in settlements in the occupied territories, as well as Arab recognition of Israel.
June 13,  2009 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declared re-elected President of Iran in elections denounced as blatantly fraudulent.
June 14,  2009 Address by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the Begin-Sadat Center, June 14, 2009  - Netanyahu acceded to Obama demand that Israel support creation of a Palestinian state, but refuses to end construction of housing in Israel's West Bank settlements. Backed by U.S.A, Palestinians refuse to start peace talks with Israel unless all Israeli construction stops in West Bank and Jerusalem.
Aug. 2009 First  Fatah congress in 20 years, issued Fatah Foreign Policy Program, August 11.
Aug. 26, 2009 Palestinian Authority issues an EU backed plan to declare a state unilaterally within two years: Palestine: Ending the Occupation, Establishing the State.
Nov.2009 Israeli P.M. Netanyahu announces settlement construction freeze to end Sept 26, 2010.
Octibr 2009 U.S. announces another clandestine Iranian nuclear facility at Qom and it is inspected by IAEA.
Mar 8, 2010  Announcement of construction in Ramat Shlomo (east Jerusalem) by Israeli Minister of the Interior Eli Yishai embarrasses US VP Joe Biden, as he arrives to kick off indirect ("proximity") talks between Israelis and Palestinians.
April 26, 2010

(approximate date) Israel and U.S. evidently tacitly agree to East Jerusalem construction freeze. (see here. and here)

May 31, 2010 Turkish ship Mavi Mamara, chartered by IHH is boarded by Israeli commandos after attempting to run the Gaza blockade. The Mavi Marmara was part of a flotilla of "humanitarian aid." Other ships are diverted to Ashdod and their cargoes of cement, used clothing and outdated medicines are shipped to Gaza by Israel.  IHH personnel on Mavi Marmara beat Israeli commandos and attack them with various weapons prepared in advance, including possibly guns, kidnapping several. Israelis open fire killing 9. Major crisis in Israel-Turkey relations and international outcry. IHH may have ties to A-Qaeda and other terrorist groups. Subsequently it was found that there were no humanitarian supplies on the Mavi Marmara.
June 9, 2010 UN Security Council  votes sanctions against Iran (Resolution 1929) because of Iranian refusal to curtail uranium enrichment program and cooperate with IAEA.  Resolution is weakened to meet Chinese and Russian objections.  Brazil and Turkey vote against the resolution. Lebanon abstains.
Jun-Jul 2010 Israel announces that it is easing the Gaza blockade, bowing to international pressure (see here and here).
July 13, 2010 Israel announces public investigation (Turkel commission) of flotilla incident. The investigation is closed in August with no public acknowledgement of serious intelligence failures. UN launches independent probe.
Aug 20, 2010 U.S. announces direct Israeli-Palestinian talks
Aug 31, 2010 Drive-by  shooting Palestinian attack kills four Israelis including pregnant woman in south Hebron area. Fatah al Aqsa brigades (ref) and later Hamas (ref)  take "credit."  Palestinian Authority arrests hundreds of alleged Hamas members. (ref). Hamas vows to continue attacks. (ref).
Sept. 2, 2010 Direct Israeli-Palestinian talks open in Washington with Egyptian President Mubarak and Jordan's King Abdullah in attendance at the initial ceremonies. The sides agree to meet every two weeks.  

(Updated Sept 4, 2010)

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