Following the Taif Agreement, and the defeat of forces loyal to Lebanese Christian Prime Minister Michel Aoun by the Syrian Army and Moslem militias, Syria and Lebanon signed the Treaty of Cooperation below. The treaty legitimizes the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, based on the clauses of the Taif agreement. This agreement was followed in quick succession by a Syrian-Lebanese Defense Cooperation Treaty and other agreements in specific bilateral issues. Unlike the Taif Agreement, Syria ensured that these agreements would be enforced. The timing of this agreement, immediately after Operation Desert Storm, suggests that Syria secured US agreement for it as a reward for Syrian cooperation during the invasion of Iraq.
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LEBANON-SYRIA TREATY OF COOPERATION MAY 20 1991
The Lebanese Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic on the basis of the distinguished brotherly relations between them which serve their strength from the roots of kinship history common affiliation common destiny and joint strategic interests; out of their belief that the achievement of the broadest cooperation and coordination between them will serve their strategic interests and provide the means for ensuring their development and progress and for defending their pan-Arab and national security be a source of prosperity and stability enable them to face all regional and international developments and meet the aspirations of peoples of the two countries; and in implementation of the Lebanese national accord which was ratified by the Lebanese Chamber of Deputies on 5 November 1989 have agreed on the following:
Article 1. The two states will work to achieve the highest level of cooperation and coordination in all political economic security cultural scientific and other fields in a manner that will realize the interests of the two fraternal countries within the framework of respect for their individual sovereignty and independence and will enable the two countries to use their political economic and security resources to provide prosperity and stability ensure their pan-Arab and national security and expand and strengthen their common interests as an affirmation of the brotherly relations and guarantee of their common destiny.
Article 2. The two states will work to achieve cooperation and coordination in the economic agricultural industrial and commercial fields as well as in the fields of transportation communications customs the establishment of joint profits and coordination of development plans.
Article 3. The connection between the security of the two countries requires that Lebanon; not become a threat to Syria's security and vice versa under any circumstances. Therefore Lebanon will not allow itself to become a transit point or base for any force state or organization that seeks to undermine its security or that of Syria. Syria which cherishes Lebanon's security independence and unity and the agreement among its people will not allow any action that threatens Lebanon's security independence and sovereignty.
Article 4. After the political reforms are approved in a constitutional manner as stipulated in the Lebanese national accord and after the deadlines specified in this accord have expired the Syrian and Lebanese Governments will decide on the redeployment of the Syrian forces in the al-Biqa' area and the entrance to western al-Biqa' in Dahr as-Baydar up to the Haammanah-al-Mudayri-'Any Dara line and if necessary in other points to be specified by a joint Lebanese-Syrian military committee. The two governments will conclude an agreement specifying the size and duration of the Syrian forces' presence in these areas and the relationship of these forces with the authorities of the Lebanese state.
Article 5. The two states' Arab and international foreign policy shall be based on the following principles:
1. Lebanon and Syria are Arab states which are committed to the Arab League Charter the Arab defense pact and joint economic cooperation and all agreements ratified within the framework of the Arab League. They are members of the United Nations and are committed to its Charter. They are also members of the Non-aligned Movement.
2. The two countries share a common destiny and common interests.
3. Each country supports the other in issues related to its security and national interests in accordance of the contents of this treaty. Therefore the governments of the two countries shall coordinate their Arab and international policies cooperate to the fullest extent possible in Arab and international institutions and organizations and coordinate their stands on regional and international issues.
Article 6. The following bodies shall be formed to achieve the goals of this treaty. Other bodies can be established by a decision from the Supreme Council.
1. The Supreme Council:
A. The supreme council will consist of the presidents of the two contracting countries and a number of other members from both countries.
B. The supreme council will meet at least once a year and more often when necessary at a venue to be agreed upon.
C. The supreme council charts the general policy for coordination and cooperation between the two states in the political economic security military and other fields. It also supervises the implementation of this policy and adopts the plans and decisions that are made by the executive body the foreign affairs committee the economic and social affairs committee the defense and security affairs committee or any committee that is established in the future provided that the constitutional provisions of the two countries are respected.
D. The supreme council's decisions are binding and effective within the framework of the constitutional laws and rules of the two countries except for those decisions which require the approval of the executive or legislative authorities in the two countries under their constitutional provisions.
E. The supreme council defines the subjects on which the committees concerned have the right to make decisions. Once they are issued these decisions assume an executive nature within the framework of the constitutional laws and rules of the two countries except for those decisions which require the approval of the executive or legislative authorities in the two countries under their constitutional provisions.
2. The Executive Body:
The executive body will consist of the prime ministers of the two countries and a number of ministers concerned with the relations between them. This body will assume the following tasks:
A. To follow up on the implementation of the decisions and to submit reports to the supreme council on the phases of implementation.
B. To coordinate the recommendations and decisions of the specialized committees and to submit the proposals to the supreme council.
C. To hold meetings with the specialized committees whenever the need arises.
D. The executive body will meet at least once every six months and more often when necessary at a venue to be agreed upon.
3. The Foreign Affairs Committee:
A. The foreign affairs committee will consist of the two countries' foreign ministers.
B. The foreign affairs committee will meet at least once every two months and more often when necessary in the two countries' capitals on a rotating basis.
C. The foreign affairs committee will seek to coordinate the foreign policy of the two countries with regard to their relations with all countries. The committee will work to coordinate their activities and stands at Arab and international organizations. The relevant plans will be drawn up and submitted to the supreme council.
4. The Economic and Social Affairs Committee:
A. The economic and social affairs committee will consist of the ministers concerned in the two countries in economic and social sectors.
B. The economic and social affairs committee will meet in the two countries' capitals on a rotating basis at least once every two months and more often when necessary.
C. The economic and social affairs committee will be responsible for working to attain economic and social coordination between the two countries and for drawing up the recommendations that will lead to such coordination.
D. The recommendations adopted by the economic and social affairs committee will take effect after they have been endorsed by the supreme council in accordance with the constitutional provisions of the two countries.
5. The Defense and Security Affairs Committee:
A. The defense and security affairs committee will consist of the two countries' ministers of defense and interior.
B. The defense and security affairs committee will be responsible for studying the adequate measures needed to safeguard the two countries' security and for suggesting joint measures to confront any aggression or threat endangering their national security or any unrest that may disturb their internal security.
C. All plans recommendations and measures prepared by the defense and security affairs committee will be submitted to the supreme council for endorsement after taking into consideration the constitutional rules of the two countries.
6. The General Secretariat:
A. A general secretariat will be created to follow up on the implementation of the provisions of this treaty.
B. The general secretariat will be headed by a secretary general who will be appointed by the supreme council.
C. The headquarters specialization basis and budget of the general secretariat will be determined by the supreme council.
A. Special agreements shall be concluded between the two countries in the fields covered by this treaty such as the economic security defense and other fields in accordance with the constitutional rules in each of the two countries and shall complement this treaty.
B. This treaty shall take effect after being ratified by the authorities of the two countries in accordance with their constitutional provisions.
C. Each of the two countries will abrogate any law or regulation which is not in line with this treaty. Such abrogation will be done in a way that does not violate any constitutional provision in either country
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