Mideastweb: Middle East

Middle East Historical Source Documents

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Middle East


recent history

brief history








Israel and Palestine: Middle East Historical and Peace Process Source Documents







See also:

Brief History of Israelis and Palestinians A capsule history of Palestine/Israel since early times.

Recent history - Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Timeline: Second Intifada

Second Intifada

Timeline: Second Intifada 2005 to Present

Zionism - Definition and Early History

Understanding the Middle East I - Finding the Truth
Understanding the Middle East II - Words about Words 
In a nutshell: the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Peace Plans-An Overview
The Evolution of the Conflict from Arab-Israeli to Palestinian-Israeli to ??

Israel-Palestine Timeline

A concise history of Islam and the Arabs
A Brief History of Arabia

Ottoman Empire

IRAQ History and Resources

IRAQ Timeline



Government of Iraq 2006 - Who's who

Iraq- Source Documents

A Brief History of Egypt  - A capsule history of Egypt since earliest times.

Suez Canal - History  
A Brief History of modern Iran - From the Qajars to present day.
Inside Al-Qaeda

Biography - Mahmoud Abbas (Abu-Mazen)
Biography - Yasser Arafat
Biography - Hassan Nassrallah
Biography - Shimon Peres
Biography - Ahmed Qurei (Abu-Ala)
Biography - Yitzhak Rabin
Biography - Ariel Sharon

Population of Palestine before 1948
British support for restoration of the Jews
President Harry S. Truman and US Support for Creation of Israel
The Lavon Affair - Israel and Terror in Egypt
Palestinian Parties
The Hamas
The Palestinian Refugees
The Growth of Palestinian Identity
The refugee problem - a personal view
Palestinian culture and identity and the role of the Palestinian women
Must Palestinian Nationalism And Zionism Change For A Lasting Middle East Peace?
Why the Oslo Process Failed
Water Issues
Additional Sources
MideastWeb Web Site Fairness and Accuracy Policy  

Middle East Trivia Quiz


2010 - UN Security Council Resolution 1929 - Further sanctions against Iran for nuclear enrichment and non-cooperation with IAEA inspectors.

2010 - Tehran Declaration - Declaration of Turkey, Brazil and Iran concerning a nuclear fuel swap scheme that would have left Iran with enough enriched uranium to build a nuclear weapon.

2009  U.N. Security Council Resolution 1887 - Supposedly a resolution about nuclear non-proliferation not aimed at any country, but clearly aimed at Israel. 

2009 - Palestine: Ending the Occupation, Establishing the State - Palestinian authority program to unilaterally establish a Palestinian state by 2011.

2009 - Full Text of Fatah Foreign Policy Program - Program calls for establishment of two states,  but both states would have an Arab majority if the demand for "Right of Return" is met.

2009 - Address by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the Begin-Sadat Center, June 14, 2009 - In this speech, Netanyahu gave Israeli support to a Palestinian state, in response to US President Obama's initiative, but would not accede to US demands for a freeze in construction of new housing in Israeli West Bank settlements.

2009 - Address by President Obama in Cairo, June 4, 2009 - This speech is bound to be marked as a historic turning point in relations between the United States and the Muslim and Arab worlds.

2008- U.N. Security Council Resolution 1835 - A formal response to an  IAEA report.

2008 - U.N. Security Council Resolution 1803 - This resolution supposedly tightened sanctions against Iran for its refusal to stop uranium enrichment and allow proper IAEA inspection of its nuclear facilities.

OIG Report on CIA Accountability With Respect to the 9/11 Attacks  - Prepared in June of 2005, but released only in part on August 21 2007, this report has relatively harsh criticism of CIA performance in countering the threat of Al-Qaida.

2007: President Bashar al Assad Inauguration Speech, July 18, 2007 - Syrian President Assad proposed direct peace negotiations with Israel, provided that Israel would agree in advance to withdraw from the Golan heights to the borders of June 4, 1967.

2007: President George Bush Middle East Peace Initiative: July 16, 2007 - The speech announced a forthcoming Middle East peace conference, as well as supposed economic support for the government of PNA President Mahmoud Abbas.

2007: Riyadh Arab Summit Resolutions - The Arab League resolved to renew the Arab peace initiative of 2003, but most of the resolutions were not conciliatory to Israel.

2007: UN Security Council Resolution 1747 - This resolution was passed after lengthy negotiations in March of 2007, to impose further sanctions on Iran for failing to halt enrichment of uranium, after its failure to comply with resolutions 1737  and 1696.

2007: Platform of the Palestinian Unity government - On March 17, 2007, the Palestinians formed a unity government. Its platform is at best ambiguous regarding the prospects for peace, and promises "resistance" until the return of Palestinian refugees and the end of the occupation, which, it states, began 60 years ago.

2006: UN Security Council Resolution 1737 - This resolution was passed after lengthy negotiations in December of 2006, to impose sanctions on Iran for failing to halt enrichment of uranium.

2006: Iraq Study Group Report: A US bipartisan group commissioned by the government gave recommendations for dealing with the deteriorating situation in Iraq.

2006: UN Security Council Resolution 1701 - This resolution was passed to end the Israeli retaliatory attack on Lebanon in August of 2006 and to disarm the Hezbollah, after Hezbollah attacked Israel, killing three soldiers and kidnapping two others and triggering a month of intense hostilities.

2006: UN Security Council Resolution 1696 - Iran is ordered to cease enrichment of uranium, under suspicion that it is developing nuclear weapons.

2006: Statement of the G-8 on the Lebanon-Israel Crisis - The G-8, meeting in St. Petersburg, issued this statement regarding the crisis that began when Lebanese Hezbollah terrorists abducted two Israeli soldiers, killed 3 others and began firing rocket attacks on Israel.

2006: UN Security Council Resolution 1680 - This resolution urges Syria to delineate borders with Lebanon, and open an embassy. It reiterates the call for disarming of militias including the Hezbollah terrorists.

2006- Palestinian Prisoners' Document - This document was adopted by Palestinian prisoners held by Israel, including members of the Hamas and Fatah factions, as a basis for conciliation between the rival factions. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas proposed to make it Palestinian national policy. After significant revisions were incorporated in the document, Hamas agreed to it on June 27, but apparently this agreement was not final.  More

2006- Quartet Meeting Statement of May 9 - The quartet overseeing the road map for Middle East Peace met and decided to implement emergency efforts for the relief of Palestinians, if a mechanism could be found that would avoid funding the Hamas government. More

2006: Iranian President Ahmadinejad's letter to US President George Bush - As pressure mounted against Iran to comply with UN and IAEA requests regarding their nuclear development program, Iranian President Ahmadinejad announced dramatically that he was sending a letter to President Bush offering to negotiate their differences. Instead, he sent a most remarkable letter preaching at Mr. Bush to repent of democracy and return to the way of religion. More

2005: Second Mehlis Report on the Hariri assassination

2005: Mehlis Report on the Hariri assassination: REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION COMMISSION ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1595 (2005) -  Implicates Syria, Lebanese officials in Hariri Assassination.

2005: Text of Israeli High Court Ruling Regarding the Legality of the Security Fence  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

2005: PM Ariel Sharon's Address before the United Nations - Following completion of the Israeli disengagement plan, Ariel Sharon gave this speech to the UN General Assembly on September 15, 2005.  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

2005: Sasson report on Illegal outposts - Israel report that documented the fact that numerous "outposts" were created in the occupied territories without government approval and in blatant violation of the law.

2005 - Sharm El Sheikh Summit 2005: Mahmoud Abbas Remarks - The Sharm El Sheikh 2005 summit meeting was supposed to end the Second Intifada. Both sides promised to end violence and resume negotiations under the roadmap.

2005 - Sharm El Sheikh Summit 2005: Ariel Sharon Remarks - The Sharm El Sheikh 2005 summit meeting was supposed to end the Second Intifada. Both sides promised to end violence and resume negotiations under the roadmap.

2004: UN Security Council Resolution 1566 - For the first time, the Security Council adopts an internationally recognized definition of terror and calls on member countries to fight terrorism.

2004: ICJ Ruling on the Israeli Security Wall (Barrier, Fence- The International Court of Justice in the Hague ruled that the security fence is illegal under international law. Several judges also submitted concurring or dissenting opinions: Dissent of Judge Buergenthal concerning the ICJ Israel Security Fence Ruling Judge Ozawa,  Opinion of Judge Higgins, Opinion of Judge Kooijmans, Opinion of Judge El Araby, Opinion of Judge Khawasneh, Opinion of Judge Koroma  (note - these documents are at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

2004 9-11 Commission Report - Report of the commission created to investigate the performance of the United States government in the attacks of Sepctember 11, 2001

2004: UN Security Council Resolution 1559 - This resolution is aimed at Syria and was an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the amendment of the Lebanese constitution to allow Syrian-sponsored Emile Lahoud to remain President for an additional three years. It calls for an end to interference in Lebanese internal affairs and for withdrawal of foreign (Syrian) troops from Lebanon.

2004: Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan - Exchange of letters between Israeli PM Ariel Sharon and US President George W. Bush regarding Sharon's proposal for unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and portions of the West Bank.

2003: UN Security Council Resolution 1515 - This resolution, introduced by Russia, adopts the quartet roadmap for peace between Palestinians and Israel as UN policy, explicitly endorses a permanent two-state solution to the conflict and calls on the sides to implement their obligations under the roadmap.

2003: UN GA Resolution Condemning the Israeli Security Barrier ("Wall") - The fence or wall that Israel is building in the West Bank has been the subject of acrimonious debate. This General Assembly Resolution condemned the fence as illegal, after the US threatened to veto a similar resolution in the Security Council.

2003: Draft Final Status Agreement (Geneva Accord (Beilin-Abd Rabbo Document) - Israeli opposition leaders, led by Shahar party leader Yossi Beilin and Palestinians led by Yasser Abd-Rabbo, negotiated a new draft agreement, that would supposedly replace the Oslo accords as the basis for Israeli-Palestinian peace.

2003:Israeli Reservations on the Middle East Peace Roadmap - The Israeli government accepted the Roadmap for Middle East Peace with 14 reservations on key points.

2003: Updated Middle East Peace Roadmap - Official updated version published by the Government of the United States April 30, 2003. 

2003: Purported Letter of Iranian government to the US government - A letter having this content was supposedly sent by the government of Iran to the United States in 2003. It promised Iranian acceptance of the Arab peace initiative and cessation of terror in return for US concessions and cooperation. It was rebuffed by the US government.

2003: Inaugural Speech of Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas - Official version of the address promising to fight corruption and violence, given on the election of Mahmud Abbas (Abu Mazen) to the post of Prime Minister, paving the way for publication of the Middle East Peace Roadmap, as promised by the United States.

2003: Draft Palestinian Constitution - Under pressure for reform, Palestinians evolved a draft constitution based upon the basic law. The democratic constitution was one of the demands of the Middle East Peace Roadmap as well as of Palestinians.  Comments on the constitution by Dr. Sami Aldeeb, a Palestinian legal expert, are given here.

2002: Jerusalem: Foreign Relations Authorization Act - This act calls for removing the US Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, and recognizing Jerusalem as part of Israel. President Bush announced that he will treat it as "advisory," meaning that he will ignore it.

2002: President Bush's Draft Road Map for a Palestinian- Israeli Settlement - In October of 2002, US President Bush issued his own version of a detailed road map for a Palestinian - Israeli settlement, based on the Quartet statement of September 17. It is known as Elements of a Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.

2002: Quartet Road Map Statement - Sept. 17 - Representatives from the European Union, the United Nations, and Russia formed group known as the " The Quartet," which began to shape international policy toward resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  The Quartet issued the statement below regarding a road map for peace on September 17, 2002.

2002: Announcement of the Quartet - July 16   - Following Colin Powell's mission to the Middle East, a four nation "Quartet" committee was formed to develop a road map for an Israeli-Palestinian settlement

2002: President George Bush Jr: Speech on the Palestine-Israel Conflict - In this controversial and historic speech, delivered following repeated Palestinian terror attacks and while Israel had reoccupied all of the West Bank in retaliation, US President Bush called for establishment of a Palestinian state following democratic reform.

2002: President Bush: Colin Powell to Travel to the Middle East - Following the initiation of the Israel Defensive Wall operation, President Bush announced that he was sending Secretary of State Colin Powell to the Middle East in an attempt to negotiate a cease fire in the Second Intifada

2002: PNA Basic Law - Under pressure for reform, PNA Chairman Yasser Arafat signs the transitional constitution of the Palestine authority. (Approved by PLC in October 1997, signed into law on May 30, 2002). The law guarantees basic rights, but states that Palestinian legislation will be based on the principles of Islamic Sha'arieh law.

2002: UN Security Council Resolution 1405 - Calls for lifting the restrictions on the work of humanitarian organizations in Jenin and for a fact finding committee to investigate the conditions following Israeli operations against terrorists. The resolution was passed following Palestinian allegations of a massacre in Jenin.

2002: UN Security Council Resolution 1403 - Calls for implementation of resolution 1402. It was passed against the backdrop of continuing Israeli incursions and continuing Palestinian suicide attacks.

2002: UN Security Council Resolution 1402 - This resolution was drafted by Norway following the Israeli incursions into  Jenin, Ramallah, Bethlehem and other towns. The towns were occupied and the Israeli Army defeated entrenched guerilla forces of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs suicide brigades, after Palestinians stepped up attacks at the end of March. The almost daily attacks included a suicide attack that killed 27 people in a Nethanya hotel while they were celebrating the Passover holiday. Syria abstained, ostensibly because the resolution didn't condemn Israel strongly enough.

2002: UN Security Council Resolution 1397 - This resolution was adopted in the face of mounting violence and failure to obtain a ceasefire. Israel had invaded Balata refugee camp following several Palestinian suicide attacks and other incidents. The Security Council called for establishment of a Palestinian state.

2002: Arab Peace Initiative  - Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah floated an Arab peace plan that was discussed and modified at an Arab League summit conference in Beirut in March of 2002. As modified by the Arab summit, the plan apparently calls for Israeli withdrawal from all territories occupied since 1967 and return of the Palestine refugees to Israel, in return for recognition of Israel and normal relations. The conference modified the proposal of Saudi Arabia by making explicit reference to UN resolution 194 and adding other stipulations that seem to mean that only return of the refugees to Israel would be acceptable.  The King of Jordan and President of Egypt did not attend. Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat was prevented from attending by the Israeli government.

2002: The Saudi Peace Initiative - Speech by Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia at the Arab summit in Beirut - The peace proposal that had been described to Thomas Friedman was presented by Abdullah with a significant modification - "return of refugees" was included. Abdullah, however, did not say if the Palestinian refugees would be returning to Israel or to the new state of Palestine.

2002: Thomas Friedman Reports the Saudi Peace Initiative  In February of 2002, New York Times correspondent Thomas Friedman dramatically reported on a new peace initiative for Israel to be proposed by Saudi Arabia in the article - "An Intriguing Signal From the Saudi Crown Prince"

2001: Osama Bin Laden Statement on Afghanistan War   This statement by Osama Bin Laden was released at the start of the U.S. - led war in Afghanistan.

2001: Tenet Plan - Plan proposed by the US CIA director to end the violence of the Second Intifada (Al Aqsa Intifada)  and revive the stalled peace process.

2001: The Mitchell Report - Report of the Mitchell Commission regarding the origins of the Second Intifada (Al Aqsa Intifada) and steps that should be taken to end the violence.

2001: Thirteenth Arab League summit in Amman calls for renewal of Arab League boycott against Israel and other steps, but takes no decisive action.

2001: UN Report on Human Rights in the Occupied Territories - In the wake of the Intifada, the UN Commission on Human Rights resolved to investigate human rights in the occupied territories of Israel-Palestine.

2001: The Jordanian-Egyptian Peace Proposal - Proposal by Jordan and Egypt for ending the violence of the Al-Aqsa Intifadeh and resumption of negotiations.

2001: The Moratinos Non-Paper - EU envoy Miguel Moratinos prepared a "non-paper" summarizing the positions of the sides at the conclusion of the Taba talks.

2001: The Palestinian and Israel Proposals at Taba regarding the Refugee Problem - The Palestine refugee problem remains perhaps the most difficult obstacle facing Israeli and Palestinian negotiators. In January 2001, the sides met at Taba in a last-minute effort to salvage a peace agreement. At the conclusion of negotiations, they issued an optimistic joint communique. Their positions regarding the refugee problem were published in the French newspaper Le Monde, and indicate fundamental differences of opinion.

2000: The Clinton Bridging Proposals - Negotiators of the Palestinian and Israeli sides, together with American officials met in the United States. After several days of negotiations, President Clinton offered these proposals to bridge differences between the sides.

2000: Communique of the Extraordinary Arab League Summit October 22, 2000, - This conference, hosted four days after the Sharm El Sheikh conference by Egyptian President Mubarak, called for a UN investigation of alleged Israeli war crimes and praised the Second Intifada.

2000: The Sharm-El Sheikh Conference remarks of Ehud Barak - Following the outbreak of Palestinian violence (Second Intifada, Al Aqsa Intifada) in September 2000, US President Clinton initiated a one day summit at Sharm El Sheikh. Israeli PM Ehud Barak made these informal remarks..

2000: The Sharm-El Sheikh Conference remarks of President Clinton - Following the outbreak of Palestinian violence (Second Intifada, Al Aqsa Intifada) in September 2000, US President Clinton initiated a one day summit at Sharm El Sheikh that was hosted by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.. These were his concluding remarks, calling for establishment of an investigative commission and other steps agreed upon by the parties to reduce violence.

2000: The Israeli Camp David II Summit Proposals - An unofficial summary of Israel proposals for final settlement made at the Camp David Summit in July 2000.

2000: Camp David Summit Statement - Israeli, Palestinian and American leaders met at Camp David in an attempt to frame a final status agreement. The meeting ended in stalemate, but the statement issued at least left a small opening for hope.

1999: Opening of Final Status Negotiations - Following resumption of implementation of the Wye River Memorandum, Final Status negotiations opened in Ramalla.

1998 - The Palestinian Refugee Issue From A FATEH Perspective - This address by Fatah Central Committee member Sakher Habash explains that Fateh policy is to perpetuate the refugee problem and to use return of the Palestinian refugees as a "winning card" that will mean the end of Israel. According Habash, this is also the policy of the Palestinian National Authority. 

1998: US Letters of Assurance Regarding Wye Memorandum Issues - Following the conclusion of the Wye River Memorandum negotiations, US officials provided Israel with letters of assurance regarding the cancellation of PLO charter provisions about destruction of Israel, and elimination of armament and surplus police not permitted under the Oslo agreement.

1998: Wye River Memorandum - Palestinian and Israeli commitments regarding the "second redeployment" (the first one was never implemented) under the interim Oslo agreement.

1998: Letter of Assurance from PNA Chairman Yasser Arafat - In January 1998, PLO Chairman Arafat issued a letter assuring the US that provisions of the PLO charter regarding destruction of Israel were null and void, and specified which provisions were nullified.

1996: Letter of PNA Chairman Arafat: Nullification of sections of the Palestinian National Charter - In May of 1996, PNA Chairman Yasser Arafat sent a letter to Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres outlining changes that were supposedly made in the Palestinian National Charter and voted on in a session of the Palestinian Legislative Council. However, no revised document was ever issued reflecting the amendments. 

1996: Fatwa of Osama Bin Laden - On September 11, 2001, simultaneous terror attacks on the Twin Towers financial center in New York City and on the Pentagon in Washington DC killed thousands. The man behind these bombings is  Osama Bin Laden, Saudi millionaire and religious fanatic. Text of Declarations of war and Fatwa against the West. Both issued 1996, republished in 1998. The 1999 Fatwa with commentary: Osama Bin Laden Fatwa of 1998  

1996: "Grapes of Wrath" understanding regarding Lebanon - Agreement concluded after the Israeli Operation Grapes of Wrath, during which Israel bombarded wide areas of South Lebanon in retaliation for Hizballah bombardment of Israel.

1995- Last Speech of Yitzhak Rabin - Israeli Prime Minister Yitshak Rabin was assassinated by right-wing  fanatic Yigal Amir at a giant peace rally in 1995. The rally had been called to protest violence that had been rising on both sides, and to reaffirm the commitment of the government and the Israeli people to peace. 

1995: Jerusalem Embassy Act - This act of the US congress called for moving the US embassy to Jerusalem, and for recognizing Jerusalem as the united capital of Israel. It has had no practical effect, because presidents Clinton and Bush issued periodic waivers stating that implementation of the act would interfere with US policy.

1995: The Oslo Interim Agreement  - This frequently misunderstood document made it possible to hold elections and set up a Palestinian Authority that would negotiate a final settlement with the Israelis. It did not stipulate the nature of the final settlement in any way.

1995: The Beilin Abu-Mazen Draft Agreement - Draft agreement, never ratified, between Israeli negotiator Yossi Beilin and PLO negotiator Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas). Though repudiated by both sides, many of the principles of the agreement have been reflected in subsequent negotiations.

1994: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty - After the Palestinian - Israeli peace process appeared to be well under way, Jordan and Israel were able to rapidly conclude a peace treaty, aided by warm personal relations between HM King Hussein and PM Rabin. 

1993: The Oslo Declaration of Principles - Breakthrough agreement of mutual recognition between the State of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, which began the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

1993: Exchange of Letters between Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat - Prior to the signing of the Oslo Declaration of Principles, Yasser Arafat of the PLO and Yitzhak Rabin exchanged letters. Arafat promised to refrain from violence and to amend the PLO Charter which called for liquidation of Israel. Rabin promised to work for normalization of life for Palestinians and peace.

1991: Syrian-Lebanese Cooperation Agreement was a bilateral Syrian Lebanese agreement that began to implement the principles of the Taif agreement regarding Syrian occupation of Lebanon.

1989- The Taif Accords - This agreement was concluded between warring factions in Lebanon under the auspices of the Arab league and Syria. They were intended to settle the Lebanese civil war and legitimize the Syrian occupation.

1989: Israeli Peace Proposal - Under pressure from the US following the Palestine National Council declaration of acceptance of UN Resolutions 242 and 338, Israel issues a peace plan for negotiations with the Palestinians, but not with the PLO.

1988: Speech by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, Recognizing Resolution 242 - Under internal pressure, as well as pressure from the United States, Yasser Arafat declares that the PLO recognizes UN resolution 242.

1988: Palestinian Declaration of Independence - Under the impetus of the uprising ("Intifadeh") in the Israeli-occupied Arab territories, the Palestine Liberation Organization declared a state in exile. Some see this declaration as implying recognition of Israel, but the declaration makes no mention of Israel or of UN resolution 242.

1988: The Hamas Charter - This Islamic fundamentalist group was formed to fight the idea of compromise over Palestine/Israel. Its charter declared that all of Palestine belongs to the Moslems, that it can only be liberated by Jihad - holy war, and that the program of Zionism was to expand and take over Arab countries one by one. This Zionist program, according to the charter, is set forth in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (an anti - Semitic forgery).

1985: Program of the Hezbollah (Hizbullah) - The Hezbollah was originally organized as a radical Shi'ite militia to fight the Israeli occupation of Lebanon in 1985. It evolved into an Iranian and Syrian supported movement for the destruction of Israel.

1983: Draft Israeli-Lebanese Treaty - This treaty was signed during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1983, but it was never ratified.

1983: Kahan Commission Report - This report summarizes  the investigation of massacres perpetrated in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Phalangist Christian militia allied to Israel. The report concluded that Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon and others had indirect responsibility for the massacres, since they had ample reason to believe that they could occur, and nonetheless allowed the militia to enter the camps.

1982: Resolutions of the Twelfth Arab Summit at Fez - the Fez peace initiative (also known as the Fahd Plan)   = The resolutions of the Twelfth Arab summit at Fez were noteworthy for including the Fez (or Fahd) peace initiative, because they were based on a plan by Saudi Arabia, named for King Fahd. The initiative called for Israeli withdrawal from the territories occupied in the 6-day war and return of the Palestinian Arab refugees. It stopped short of promising recognition of Israel explicitly, but did refer to the right of all states to live in peace.

1982: Israeli-Palestinian Peace initiative of President Ronald Reagan - This initiative called for complete Israeli withdrawal from Gaza and the West Bank, and Jordanian administration of the territories, in return for peace and recognition of Israel by the Arab states. It was rejected by all sides.

1980 UN Security Council Resolution 478 - This resolution protested the passage of the Israeli basic law declaring that united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.

1980: Basic Law: Jerusalem - Declared united Jerusalem to be the capital of Israel.

1980 UN Security Council Resolution 476 - This resolution protested the Israeli intention to pass a basic law declaring that united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.

1979: Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt - The peace treaty was signed almost a year after the historic Camp David agreement, and after intensive shuttle diplomacy by US President Jimmy Carter.

1978: The Camp David Framework Agreements - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin, meeting at Camp David under the auspices of US President Jimmy Carter, sign framework agreements for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel. The Middle East framework was not implemented, but its some principles were incorporated in later negotiations with the Palestinians and Syrians.

1978: UN Security Council Resolution 425 - Adopted in March, 1978, when Israel invaded Lebanon (Operation Litani).

1977: PLO Six Point Program - In reaction to the visit of Egyptian President Anwar As Sadat to Jerusalem, offering peace, the PLO formed a block of opposition states and groups, reiterating its rejection of UN Resolutions 242 and 338, and its intention to destroy Israel.

1977: Anwar Sadat Speech to the Knesset - In November of 1977, President Anwar as Sadat of Egypt traveled to Jerusalem and delivered this plea for peace that initiated the Israeli-Egyptian peace process.

1975: Harold H. Saunders Testimony before a House Subcommittee: " In many ways, the Palestinian dimension of the Arab-Israeli conflict is the heart of that conflict." The content of this speech was to set the agenda for US policy in next three decades.

1975: Chaim Herzog's Address regarding the Zionism is Racism resolution

1975: UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 - The "Zionism is Racism" resolution, adopted November 10, 1975.

1974 - UN General Assembly Resolutions 3236 and 3237 - These resolutions recognized the right of the Palestinian people to "resist" the occupation and granted observer status to the Palestine Liberation Organization. 

1974- Yasser Arafat's Speech Before the UN General Assembly - Yasser Arafat, chairman of the PLO  was invited to speak before the UN General Assembly. He equated Zionism with racism and anti-Semitism, asserted that terrorism was legitimate for the purpose of revolution, and vowed to liberate Palestine and replace Israel with a secular democratic state.

1974 - Palestine National Council Resolution - In 1974, the Palestine National Council adopted a program for gradual "liberation" of Palestine, declaring that it would establish a state on any part of Palestine liberated from the Zionists. This has variously been interpreted as a historic compromise implying that Palestinians would be willing to live alongside Israel, or as a "staged plan" for the destruction of Israel.

1973: UN Security Council Resolution 338 - Resolution adopted following the October Yom Kippur War.

1968: Palestinian National Charter - Revised document adopted by the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1968, as the basis for their struggle against Israel and Zionism. In 1993, as part of the Oslo agreement, the Palestinians promised to cancel key provisions of the charter that denied the right of Israel to exist. The PLO executive met on two different occasions (the second one in the presence of President Clinton) to alter the charter. 

1968 - UN Security Council Resolution 252 - Resolution calling on Israel to halt its plans for unification of Jerusalem.

1967: UN Security Council Resolution 242 - Resolution adopted following the  6-Day War, calling for a negotiated peace and Israeli withdrawal from territories conquered in the 6 Day war.

1967: Khartoum Resolutions - Following the 6-Day war, an Arab summit meeting in Khartoum rejected the possibility of peace or negotiations with Israel.

1967: Speech by Gamal Nasser to Egyptian National Assembly Members - Made on May 29, 1967, - Nasser insisted that the battle with Israel would reverse the Arab loss of 1948, or in other words, that Egypt was preparing to destroy Israel

1967: Speech by Gamal Nasser to Arab Trade Unionists - Made on May 26, 1967 -  Nasser  claimed that Egypt was only looking for the right movement and the proper excuse to fight for the Palestinian cause.

1964: Arab Note to the UN in reply to the Israeli Note - The Arab states responded to the Israeli note to the UN regarding the Arab summit, citing a history of Israeli violations of UN resolutions.

1964: Israeli Notes to the UN Following Arab Summit - Following the Arab Summit of September 13, Israel sent two notes to the UN regarding the declared intention to destroy Israel which was among the resolutions of conference.

1964: The second Arab summit conference - The conference held in Alexandria on Sept. 13, 1964, declared the goal of eliminating Israel, and made concrete decisions regarding unification of army commands, increased size of armed forces and diversion of the waters of the Jordan before they reached the Sea of Galilee, in Syria and Lebanon.

1964 - Palestinian National Charter (original) - The Palestine Liberation Organization was formed in this period at the instigation of Syria and Egypt and adopted a charter calling for the destruction of Israel and "liberation" of all of "Palestine."

1964(?) The Fateh Constitution - The Fateh Palestinian resistance movement began to form about 1957, but was not officially organized until the 60s. It soon became the leading Palestinian group. Their constitution, which has not been changed following the peace accords, calls for the destruction of Israel and of Zionism.

1956: UN General Assembly Resolution 997 - Passed following the Israeli/Anglo-French invasion of Egypt ("The Suez Campaign"), this resolution calls for immediate withdrawal of all forces to the armistice lines. The security council was unable to pass any resolution on this issue because the French and British would have vetoed it. Accordingly Security Council Resolution 119 called for a meeting of the General Assembly.

1951: UN Security Council Resolution 95 - Called on Egypt to open the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping and to desist from belligerent acts.

1950: General Report of the UN Conciliation Commission on Palestine. - This report covers both boundary and refugee issues. The discussion of refugees remains relevant today.

1949: UN General Assembly Resolution 303 - Reaffirmed the status of Jerusalem and environs as a corpus separatum to be administered by the United nations.

1949 : UN General Assembly Resolution 302 - created the United Nations Relief Works Agency for assisting Palestinian Arab refugees.

1949: UN General Assembly Resolution 212 This resolution provided interim aid to Arab refugees from Palestine.

1949: Palestine Holy Place: Places: Letters pledging access - Pledges by belligerents to allow access to holy places in Palestine, provided in reply to the request for such pledges (see  Implementation of UN Resolution 194).

1949: Palestine Holy Places: Implementation of UN Resolution 194 - This document called for written undertakings by different governments regarding access to holy places in Palestine outside the "internationalized Jerusalem sector. 

1949: Palestine Holy Places - Document prepared for the UN Secretariat listing the major holy places and the status and resolution of conflicting claims of ownership.

1949 : Arab Population of the Area Occupied by IDF as of April 1949 - This document gives the prewar April 1945 estimate of Arab population of those cities and towns included in "green line" Israel.

1949: Armistice Agreements - Under the aegis of UN Mediator Ralph Bunche, negotiations were conducted between Israel and the four neighboring states that were at war with it. The agreements incorporated lands that had been allocated to the Palestinian state into Israel, Jordan and Syria, and left the Gaza Strip under Egyptian administration Armistice between Israel and Egypt - February 24, 1949   Armistice between Israel and Lebanon - March 23, 1949   Armistice  between Israel and Jordan - April 3, 1949 Armistice  between Israel and Syria- June 20, 1949

1948: UN General Assembly Resolution 194 - This resolution, adopted near the close of the Israel War of Independence (1948 War), calls for repatriation of any Palestinian refugees who are "willing to live in peace with their neighbors," and compensation for loss of property as a result of the war.

1948: UN Security Council Resolution 62 - This resolution called on the parties in the Arab-Israeli war to conclude armistice agreements that would lead to a lasting peace.

1948: Arab League Statement - Immediately following the Israeli declaration of independence, the Arab League states declared war on Israel and issued a statement announcing their intentions to restore the state of affairs prevailing prior to partition - in other words, to eliminate the State of Israel.

1948: Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel - Issued May 14 1948, as the British were departing Palestine, the declaration of independence promised equality to all citizens of Israel in a "Jewish State."

1948: The British Record on Partition - A study by The Nation magazine submitted as a report to the U.N., with documentation, claimed to demonstrate how the British had fought to subvert the UN partition resolution on Palestine, and made a key contribution to founding the Israeli-Arab conflict.

1948: Haganah Intelligence Report Regarding the Situation in Jerusalem - Following the decision of the UN to partition Palestine , Arabs tried to put into effect a blockade of Jerusalem that would force the surrender of the Jewish community there. As this Haganah report shows, the situation had become desperate, belying the claim that the Jews had clear military superiority over the Arabs.

1948: British Police Report Regarding Arab Evacuation of Haifa - In the chaos that ensued following the decision of the UN to partition Palestine , Palestinian Arabs began fleeing from major towns, including Haifa. Part of the flight was directed from above, by the Arab higher command, part was due to fear following the attack of Jewish dissidents on Deir Yassin , in which over a hundred civilians were killed. In Haifa, Jewish attacks by the Hagganah and Irgun as well as Arab attacks and Jewish counter-attacks, turned the city into a battle field. Some Jewish authorities intervened to try to convince Arabs to stay, but the leadership explained that Arab higher committee members had left, the community was disintegrating as they talked, and there was nothing they could do.

1948: Truman Statement on Trusteeship for Palestine - Issued March 25, 1948, it was Truman's way of defusing the trusteeship plan that had been backed by the State Department and advanced at the UN without his approval. The purpose of the trusteeship plan was to prevent Israeli statehood. Truman's statement turned trusteeship into a prelude to statehood. In fact, the idea was never implemented. Support of the Truman administration for Israeli statehood is discussed here.

1948: Plan Dalet (Plan D) - The general plan developed over several years by the Haganah for defense in case of Arab attack on the Jewish state. 

1947: Haifa Refinery Riots - Following the announcement of the partition plan, violence erupted sporadically throughout Palestine. Here is one account of a major incident in Haifa.

1947: Population of Palestine Estimated By the Anglo American Commission - This report was produced in 1947 and estimates population as of December 31, 1946.

1947: UN Partition Plan for Palestine: General Assembly Resolution 181 - Plan to partition Palestine into two states after the British Mandate ended.

1947: UN Debate on Palestine Partition- November, 26, 1947 - The USSR favored the partition plan.  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1947: UN Debate on Palestine - US Position -The US supported the partition plan.  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1947: UN Debate on Palestine - Remarks of Soviet Representative Andrei Gromyko, May 14, 1947- The USSR supported a one-state solution at this time, but would support partition if the one-state solution was unworkable.  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1947: Speech of David Ben-Gurion Before the Elected Assembly of the Jewish Community in Palestine - As the mandate drew to a close, leaders of the Jewish community met met to consider probable defense needs.

1947: UNSCOP Report - Report of the UN Special Committee on Palestine appointed to examine the question of Palestine.

1947: UN Debate on Establishment of USCOP - Statements of Iraqi delegate and of Soviet FM Gromyko. The Iraqi delegate stated his government's commitment to a single democratic state, while the Soviet delegate outlined the cases for a binational state, or if the sides failed to be reconciled, to a partition solution.

1946: Report of the Anglo American Committee of Inquiry - The Committee rejected partition and recommended allowing 100,000 Jewish immigrants to enter Palestine. Palestine would remain a cultural "Jewish Homeland" but Jews and Arabs would work together. The report of the commission provides an excellent detailed summary of the history of Palestine under the mandate and of security conditions, as well as appalling documentation of the Holocaust and its effects on European Jewry. 

1946: Arab Office Report to the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry - The Arab Office in Jerusalem rejected any partition plan or binational state, and called instead for the establishment of an Arab state in the whole of Palestine, that would safeguard the rights of the Jewish minority as well.

1945: Pact of the Arab League - The Arab League was formed to further Arab interests, and in particular, to block further development of Palestine as a national home for the Jewish People.

1945: Letter of Franklin Roosevelt to Ibn Saud - Shortly before he died, President Roosevelt promised that the United States would not not, as long as he was president, take any measures inimical to the Arab cause or make any decisions about Palestine without consulting the Arabs. Roosevelt's policy was reversed by his successor, Harry Truman.

1944: Alexandria Protocol - In 1944, Arab leaders met in Alexandria. The resulting resolutions led to formation of the Arab League.

1942: The Biltmore Program - The 1939 British White Paper had closed Palestine to Jewish immigration, trapping millions of Jews in Nazi occupied Europe. Zionist leaders met in the Biltmore Hotel in New York, and declared their support for a Jewish Commonwealth and renewed immigration, in open defiance of the British mandatory authorities.

1941 - Palestinian Grand Mufti Haj Amin El Husseini - Fatwa of 1941 - Declares Holy War on Britain - During the Pro-Axis Coup he engineered in Iraq, the Mufti issued a Fatwa calling for Holy War against Britain in a radio speech broadcast on Axis radio as well as in Iraq.

1939: Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations- Report 29th June 1939: A.  Palestine:  observations on the policy laid down in the  White Paper of May 1939 -  League of Nations Mandates commission found that British policy was not in conformance with the mandate, but did not make a unanimous recommendation to the League Council.

1939: The British White Paper - This policy statement limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 15,000 per year for five years, effectively rescinding the Balfour declaration. which had been the basis for the British Mandate.

1938: Disposition of the Peel and Woodhead reports - The British government decided to abandon the partition plan because the Arab state would not be economically viable.

1937 - King Saud's Views on Palestine and Partition - In 1937, King Saud explained to a retired British official, H.R.P. Dickson, why the Arabs would oppose partition of Palestine as recommended by the Peel Commission, and urged the British to stop Jewish immigration and  not to make concessions to the Jews, who he said were 'a race accursed by God according to His Holy Book, and destined to final destruction and eternal damnation hereafter.' Saud's threat that the Arabs would abandon Britain if partition was implemented, may have been instrumental in shaping British policy in Palestine.

1937: The  Peel Commission Report and Partition Plan Maps - The Peel Commission, set up after the Arab revolt had begun in 1936, recommended Partition of Palestine into a tiny Jewish area and a much larger Palestinian area.

1931: Letter of Ramsay MacDonald to Haim Weizmann Rescinding the Passfield White Paper - This letter explained that the British government had no intention of stopping immigration to Palestine, despite the Hope-Simpson report and Passfield White Paper.

1930: The Passfield White Paper- The Passfield White Paper, issued simultaneously with the Hope-Simpson report, adopted the provisions of the Hope-Simpson report and declared that the protection of the rights of Arab inhabitants was of equal importance to the mission of the British Mandate with the development of a Jewish National Home.

1930: The Hope-Simpson Report - (note - this is a very large document) The Hope Simpson report, issued following the riots of 1929, recommended the cessation of Jewish immigration to Palestine pending development of irrigation, which might allow the immigration of an additional 20,000 families.

1923: Vladimir Jabotinsky: The Iron Wall - This essay was published by the head of the Zionist Revisionist movement, Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky in 1923. In reaction to riots that had occurred in 1920 and 1921. It called for an independent, legal Jewish defense force, a Jewish Legion in Palestine, which Jabotinsky referred to as an "Iron Wall."

1922: The British Mandate for Palestine - The League of Nations Mandate giving Great Britain control of Palestine for the purpose of making a Jewish National Home there.

1922: The Churchill ("Command") White Paper - Document that created, in effect, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, while reasserting the commitment of Great Britain to a Jewish National Home in Palestine west of the Jordan river.

1922: Correspondence related to the Churchill White Paper of 1922 - Prior to publication of the Churchill White paper, the document was circulated to both Zionist and Palestinian representatives, who commented on it.

1921- John Evelyn Shuckburgh, Colonial Office Memo on Jewish Gun-Running in Palestine - Evidence that at least some British officials supported Jewish self-defense, and understood the Balfour declaration to be a commitment to foster a Jewish national home. 

1920 - San Remo Resolution - Resolution of the 1920 San Remo conference of the four principal allied powers, concerning the distribution of class "A" mandates in the Middle East territories of the former Ottoman Empire. Syria was to have been an independent state. Palestine was to have been a Jewish homeland, but the mandate was not yet assigned to any country. This document should not be confused with a document called the "San Remo Convention" that appears in a few places on the Web, but which is identical to the text of the British Mandate for Palestine issued in London in 1922 by the League of Nations.

1919: League of Nations Covenant Mandate Provision - The enabling provision that was the basis of the Mandate for Palestine given to Great Britain in 1922.

1919: The King-Crane Commission Report - (note - this is a very large document) - The King Crane Commission was appointed by U.S. President Wilson to ascertain the will of the inhabitants of the Middle East with regard to proposed French and British mandates, and the allocation of Palestine as a national home for the Jewish people. 

1919: Statement of the Zionist Organization to the Paris Peace Conference - The Zionist organization presented this statement at the Paris peace conference, outlining the Zionist position regarding Palestine, and supporting the British proposal for a mandate that would create a Jewish national home, in line with the Balfour Declaration . The statement provides a great deal of background regarding the position of various Zionist groups and foreign governments, and gives proposed borders for the Palestine mandate as well as proposals for organization of the Palestine government.

1919- Report of the Intelligence section of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference - This draft report seems to leave no doubt that insofar as the Americans are concerned, that the intent of the Mandate given to Great Britain in Palestine was to foster creation of an independent Jewish state.

1919: Feisal-Frankfurter Correspondence - Letters exchanged between Feisal, the son of Sharif Hussayn and US Justice Felix Frankfurter, at the Paris peace conference in 1919, assuring Dr. Frankfurter that Zionism had the support of the Arabs, and declaring that Zionism is a national movement and not an imperialist movement.

1919: Feisal-Weizmann Agreement - Aborted agreement between the son of Sharif Hussayn, leader of the Arab revolt, and Dr. Haim Weizmann, head of the Zionist movement, in which Zionists agreed to further Arab nationalist aims and Feisal agreed to support the Balfour declaration and large scale Jewish immigration to Palestine, provided that the Arabs received an independent state in Iraq and Syria.

1917: Balfour Declaration - The "letter" from Lord Balfour to Lord Rothschild, declaring that the British government "view with favor" the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine. This was to be the basis of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine, granted to Great Britain.

1917 - Edwin Montagu - Opposition to the Balfour Declaration - Edwin Montagu, the only Jew in the British cabinet, was a bitter opponent of the Balfour declaration. In August of 1917, he presented the government with a referendum claiming that the declaration was "anti-Semitic" and would result in the expulsion of Jews from Europe. The Jewish problem, Montagu believed was being solved by "progress." (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement - Agreement between Mark Sykes for Britain and Georges Picot for France, granting parts of the Middle East to French and International Control.

1915: Husayn-McMahon Correspondence - Letter from Sir Henry McMahon to Sherif Husayn (Hussein of Mecca) in 1915, reserving part of the area to be liberated from Turkish control for non-Arab control. The boundaries of the area specified were vague. Various commentators decided that the area did or did not include Palestine according to their partisan prejudices.

1902:Altneuland - Theodor Herzl's novel of a modern, democratic, pluralistic Jewish state in Palestine, with equality for Arabs. In Hebrew, it was called "Tel Aviv."  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1897: Program of the First Zionist Congress - Theodore Herzl organized the first Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland in 1897. Prior to the Congress, Zionist activities had been initiated by several different groups such as Hovevei Zion (lovers of Zion) with no central direction or political program. The Basle Congress was the foundation of a mass Zionist movement.

1897: Max Nordau - Opening Address at the first Zionist congress .

1896: The Jewish State, by Theodore Herzl - This book became, essentially, the program of the Zionist movement and the embodiment of its common ideology. Complete downloadable source, with a historical preface.

1891 - Achad Haam: Anticipations and Survivals - An analysis intended to show the evolution of the Zionist idea from Jewish orthodox traditions.

1889 - Achad Ha'am - This is not the way ("The wrong way")  - Achad Ha'am believed that Zionist settlement in Palestine would never amount to anything important without a cultural revival of the Jewish people.

1882: BILU Manifesto- Document issued by the BILU, a Proto-Zionist pioneer group in Constantinople, on their way to settle in the land of Israel.>

1882: Auto-Emancipation by Leon Pinsker - This early Zionist pamphlet was written by Leon Pinsker after violent pogroms in Russia.

1862: Rome and Jerusalem: The Last National Question by Moses Hess - This book was the first call for Jewish national liberation couched in terms of nationalism and based on socialist and liberalist ideals.  (note - this document is at Zionism and Israel Information Center)

1799 - Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State - In this stillborn proclamation, Napoleon offered the Jews a state in Palestine under French protection. This was the first of many such nineteenth century projects for restoration of the Jews in Palestine.

638 - Covenant of Omar - When the Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem in 638, he gave the Christian inhabitants a proclamation affording them his protection.

c 430 BCE- Herodotus - On the customs of the Persians - A glimpse of Achaemanid Persia through the eyes of the Greek historian and explorer,.

Early History of Canaan/Israel/Palestine in Maps - Sketches early history from before the time of the Hebrews to 1914, showing maps of Canaan/Palestine/Israel at key stages. 


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