The Qajar or Ghajar were a Persian clan and dynasty.
Qajar dynasty replaced the
in 1794 when Mohammad Khan Qajar defeated Lotf Ali Khan at Kerman. Mohammad Khan Qajar
then conquered Khorasan, held by the Afsharid
dynasty, in 1796. Mohammad Khan Qajar was an exceptionally cruel ruler
showing no mercy to defeated enemies and killing entire towns. He moved the
capital to Tehran, then only a village. Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in
Qajar expansionism met the resistance of the
Russian Empire and of the British East India Company.
Persia (Iran) became part of the staging ground of the "Great
The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905/1911 marked the beginning of
modern history in that country. The Qajar Dynasty became a constitutional
monarchy, and then was replaced in 1925 by the
Pahlevi dynasty, but Qajar claimants to the throne of
1794: Mohammad Khan Qajar defeats the last
ruler at Kerman,
1796: Mohammad Khan Qajar defeats the last Afsharid
rulers and is proclaimed Shah.
1804 - 1813: Russo-Persian war;
looses, with considerable loss of territory in the north, particularly Georgia
and Azerbaijan according to the treaty of Gulistan.
1826- 1828: Second Russo-Persian war initiated by
again ending in
defeat. Culminates in treaty of Tukmanchay, granting territorial an other
concessions the th Russians in Armenia and in the Caucasus.
occupy Herat in Afghanistan, precipitating Anglo-Persian War; the British
send a small force to Western
and in 1827 the Persians
sue for peace, conceding Herat.
1881: Russian advances into Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Mozzafar ad-Din is forced to abandon central parts of his
monarchial power allowing a consultative assembly and a constitution.
1909: Mohammad Ali's bid t restore the absolute monarchy ends in
his ouster and a rebellion.
1914-1918: During World War I, Iran is occupied by Great Britain, Russia
and the Ottoman Empire.
1921 Backed by the British, Reza Khan leads his
troops to overthrow the government. He forces
Ahmad to appoint Sayyid
Zia Uddin Tabataba'i as prime minister and Reza Khan becomes war minister.
1923: Ahmad is forced into exile.
1925 Reza Khan forces parliament to depose Ahmad, appoints himself regent
and then assumes the title of Shah, starting the
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar 1796-1797
Fath Ali 1797-1834
Nasser ad-Din 1848-1896
Mozzafar ad-Din 1896-1907
Mohammad Ali 1907-1909
October 30, 2010
Synonyms and alternate spellings:
History of modern Iran