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Abu-Bakr

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Abu-Bakr

Abu Bakr (Arabic: ابو بكر الصديق) (c. 573ľAugust 23, 634) the first Caliph. He was Muhammad's neighbor and the first to convert to Islam from outside Muhammad's family. He became the chief advisor and senior companion of Muhammad and was elected Caliph in 632, upon the death of Muhammad. He was backed by Umar as successor to Muhammad, and some claim that he was coerced to accept the Caliphate by Umar. During his brief reign, he put down the Ridda apostasy that spread after the death of Muhammad, and with his chief general Khalid Ibn Walid, began the conquest of Sassanid Persia and the Byzantine empire, conquering Syria and Iraq. He quarreled with Fatmah, daugher of Muhammad. Shi'a do not recognize Abu Bakr as Caliph. He ied of an illness or poisoning in 634. 


Synonyms and alternate spellings: 

Further Information: See History of Islam and the Arabs Islam


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Encyclopedia of the Middle East

Note - This encyclopedia is a work in progress. It is far from complete and is being constructed and improved all the time. If you would like to contribute articles or expansions of existing articles, please contact news (at) mideastweb.org.  Suggestions and corrections are welcome. The concise version of this dictionary is at our Middle East Glossary.

Spelling - Spelling of words in Middle-Eastern languages is often arbitrary. There may be many variants of the same name or word such as Hezbollah, Hizbolla, Hisbolla or Husayn and Hussein. There are some conventions for converting words from Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew There are numerous variant renderings of the same Arabic or Hebrew words, such as "Hizbollah," "Hisbulla" etc. It is not possible to find exact equivalents for several letters. 

Pronunciation - Arabic and Hebrew vowels are pronounced differently than in English. "o" is very short. The "a" is usually pronounced like the "a" in market, sometimes as the "a" in "Arafat."  The " 'A " is guttural.  " 'H "- the 'het ('Hirbeh, 'Hebron, 'Hisbollah') designates a sound somewhat similar to the ch in "loch" in Scots pronunciation, but made by touching the back of your tongue to the roof of your mouth. The CH should be pronounced like Loch, a more assertive consonant than 'het.

The "Gh" combination, and sometimes the "G," designate a deep guttural sound that Westerners may hear approximately as "r." The "r" sound is always formed with the back of the tongue, and is not like the English "r."

More information: Hebrew, Arabic

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Abu-Bakr